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  1. TEND/TENT Unit 8.1 From the Latin tendere, meaning “to stretch, extend, or spread.”

  2. Related Words Unit 8.1 • Contentious (adj.): Having a tendency to pick fights/ quarrelsome • Distend (v.): To swell or become expanded

  3. Related Words Unit 8.1 Portend (v.): 1. To give a sign or warning beforehand; 2. To indicate or signify.

  4. Related Words Unit 8.1 Tendentious (adj.): Leaning toward a particular point of view; biased

  5. Notes Unit 8.1 This root can be seen most simply in the English word tent, meaning a piece of material stretched or extended over a frame or in the word extend or tendon.

  6. PEND/PENS Unit 8.2 From the Latin verb pendere, this root means “to hang, weigh, or cause to hang down”

  7. Related Words Unit 8.2 • Appendage (n): 1. Something joined onto a larger or more important body or thing. 2. A subordinate body part, such as an arm or a leg.

  8. Related Words Unit 8.2 • Expend (v): 1. To pay out. 2. To use up. • Propensity (adj): An often intense natural inclination or preference

  9. Related Words Unit 8.2 • Stipend (n): A sum of money paid at regular intervals in return for services or to cover expenses

  10. Notes Unit 8.2 This root can be found in words like pensive, meaning “thoughtful,” and appendix, that useless and sometimes troublesome piece that hangs from the intestines.

  11. PAN Unit 8.3 This root comes from the Greek with its spelling and meaning intact. It simply means “all” in Greek; as an English prefix it can also mean “completely,” “whole,” or “general.”

  12. Related Words Unit 8.3 • Panacea (n): A remedy for all ills or difficulties; cure-all.

  13. Related Words Unit 8.3 • Pandemonium (n): A wild uproar or commotion.

  14. Related Words Unit 8.3 • Panegyric (n): A formal speech or statement giving high praise to someone or something.

  15. Related Words Unit 8.3 • Panoply (n): 1. A magnificent or impressive array. 2. A display of all appropriate accessory items.

  16. Notes Unit 8.3 A panoramic view is a complete view in every direction. Pantheism is the worship of all gods and a pandemic is an outbreak of a disease that can create catastrophic problems.

  17. EXTRA Unit 8.4 This root of unknown origin places words outside or beyond their usual or routine territory.

  18. Related Words Unit 8.4 • Extramundane (adj): Situated in or relating to a region beyond the material world.

  19. Related Words Unit 8.4 • Extrapolate (v): To extend or project facts/data into an area not known in order to make assumptions or to predict facts or trends.

  20. Related Words Unit 8.4 • Extrovert (n): A person mainly concerned with things outside him/her-self; a sociable and outgoing person.

  21. Related Words Unit 8.4 • Extraneous (adj): 1. Existing or coming from the outside. 2. Not forming an essential part; irrelevant.

  22. Notes Unit 8.4 Extraterrestrial and extragalactic affairs take place beyond the earth or in the galaxy. Something extravagant, such as an extravaganza goes beyond the limits of reason or necessity.

  23. PHOS / PHOT Unit 8.5 From the Greek, this root means “light.”

  24. Related Words Unit 8.5 • Phosphorescent (adj): Giving off a glow that continues after an energy source has stopped transmitting energy. 2. Giving off a glow over a pd. of time w/o producing noticeable heat.

  25. Related Words Unit 8.5 • Photogenic (adj): Very suitable for being photographed.

  26. Related Words Unit 8.5 • Photon (n): A tiny particle or bundle of radiant energy.

  27. Related Words Unit 8.5 Photosynthesis (n): The process by which green plants use light in order to produce organic material from carbon dioxide and water.

  28. Notes Unit 8.5 This root can be seen in the word phosphorous, which refers generally to anything that glows in the dark and also to the element and also in photography, which is the use of light to create an image on film or paper.

  29. LUC Unit 8.6 From the Latin noun, lux and the verb lucere, this root means “to shine or glitter.”

  30. Related Words Unit 8.6 • Elucidate (v): To clarify by explaining; explain. • Lucent (adj): 1. Giving off light. 2. Easily seen through.

  31. Related Words Unit 8.6 • Lucubration (n): 1. Hard or difficult study. 2. The product of such study

  32. Related Words Unit 8.6 • Translucent (adj): Partly transparent; allowing light to pass thru but diffusing it so that objects beyond cannot be seen clearly.

  33. Notes Unit 8.6 Lucid prose is clear in meaning, as if light were shining through it. Lucifer, a name for the devil, means “Light-bearer,” the name he had before he fell from heaven.

  34. MOR / MORT Unit 8.7 From the Latin mori, this root means “to die,” and “death.”

  35. Related Words Unit 8.7 • Immortality (adj): 1. Deathless or unending existence. 2. Lasting fame. • Moribund (adj): 1. In the process of dying or approaching death; 2. Inactive or becoming outmoded.

  36. Related Words Unit 8.7 • Mortician (n): A person who prepares the dead for burial or cremation and manages the funeral.

  37. Related Words Unit 8.7 • Mortify (v): 1. To subdue or deaden (the body) esp. by self-discipline or self-inflicted pain. 2. To embarrass greatly; humiliate.

  38. Notes Unit 8.7 A mortuary is a place where dead bodies are kept until burial. A memento mori (a Latin phrase meaning literally, “remember that you must die”) is a reminder of death; the death’s head carved onto an old gravestone is an example.

  39. NEC / NIC / NOX Unit 8.8 from the Latin verb necare and the noun noxa, this root has to do with killing and slaying

  40. Related Words Unit 8.8 • Internecine (adj): 1. Deadly; mutually destructive; 2. Involving conflict within a group.

  41. Related Words Unit 8.8 • Necrosis (n): The usually localized death of living tissue.

  42. Related Words Unit 8.8 • Noxious (adj): Harmful to or destructive of living things.

  43. Related Words Unit 8.8 • Pernicious (adj): Extremely harmful or destructive.

  44. Notes Unit 8.8 These roots are related to the Greek nekros, “corpse,” found in words such as necrology, “a list of the recently dead,” and necromancy, “the art of conjuring up the spirits of the dead.