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Benign prostatic Hyperplasia

Benign prostatic Hyperplasia

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Benign prostatic Hyperplasia

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  1. Dr.ArunNarayanaswamy Urology Unit Amiri Hospital Benign prostatic Hyperplasia

  2. BPH Anatomy of Prostate Aetiology Pathophysiology Incidence Clinical presentation Investigations Management Outline Catheterisation • Indications • Catheter types • Technique • Complications

  3. Walnut-sized. Part of male reproductive system Location Anterior to rectum, Just distal to bladder, Encircling the neck of bladder and urethra Normal weight – 20gm Anatomy of Prostate gland

  4. Prostatic parenchyma divided into 4 Zones. Biologically and anatomical distinct. Anatomy of Prostate gland

  5. Secretes alkaline fluid–30% of seminal volume Actions -Lubrication and nutrition for sperm, Liquefaction of the seminal plug, Neutralizes acidic vaginal environment Prevents retrograde ejaculation (ejaculation resulting in semen being forced backwards into the bladder) by closing the bladder neck during sexual climax. Functions of Prostate gland

  6. BPH is part of the natural aging process, like getting gray hair or wearing glasses Characterized by hyperplasia of prostatic stromal and epithelial cells. Occurs in the Transitional zone. Results in formation of nodules in the periurethral region of the prostate. What is BPH ?

  7. Urethra Peripheral Zone Transition zone What is BPH ?

  8. Aetiology of Hyperplasia • DHT-mediated hyperplasia aided by estrogens In aging men, estradiol levels increase.

  9. Mechanism of Obstruction • Mechanical Component - When sufficiently large, the nodules compress the urethral canal

  10. Mechanism of Obstruction • Dynamic Component - Large numbers of alpha-1-adrenergic receptors present in the smooth muscle of the stroma and capsule of the prostate, bladder neck. Stimulation causes ↑ in smooth-muscle tone

  11. Gross - Circumscribed grey white nodules Histology Epithelial - Glandular proliferation or dilation Stromal - Fibrous or Muscular proliferation Mostly common - Fibroadenomyomatous pattern Pathology of BPH

  12. Bladder wall -  contractile force leads to: Hypertrophy or Trabeculation, and Irritability. Bladder may gradually weaken Increased residual urine volume Acute or chronic urinary retention. Biopsy -  smooth-muscle fibers /  in collagen - Decrease compliance, Impair contraction BPH - Bladder Effects

  13. Prevalence of BPH • 25% - 40-49 years • 50% - 70 & older • 90% at 85 years Source: J Urol 1984;132:474 • Only 50% develop clinical symptoms. • Severity of symptoms not related to size. • Second most common surgery after cataract extraction in men > 65 years.

  14. Common Terms • LUTS Lower-urinary-tract symptoms • BPE Benign prostatic enlargement (macroscopic) • BPH Benign prostatic hyperplasia (microscopic/histologic) • BOO Bladder-outlet obstruction

  15. Symptoms Obstructive Symptoms (Voiding) Irritative Symptoms (Storage) - Dysuria - Frequency - Nocturia - Urgency - Incontinence - Nocturnal enuresis Elective - Weak stream - Straining to void - Hesitancy - Intermittency - Terminal dribbling - Incomplete emptying Emergency - Acute urinary retention - Chronic Retention with overflow

  16. Symptom Assessment • International Prostate Symptom Score(IPSS) / AUA Score • Based on a survey & questionnaire developed by the American Urological Association (AUA). • 7 questions about the severity of symptoms. • Total score: Mild 0 - 7 Moderate 8 - 19 Severe 20 - 35

  17. Studies have identified LUTS as an independent risk factor for erectile / ejaculatory dysfunction. Sexual history

  18. Suprapubic area - Bladder distension Neurological examination - Decreased anal sphincter tone Absent bulbocavernosus reflex Palpate the scrotum: epididymoorchitis Signs of CRF, Pallor Physical Examination

  19. Left lateral position Index finger of the dominant hand. Palpate circumferentially - windshield wiper movement Rectal Examination

  20. Prostate size and contour, Median sulci Consistency Nodules, Hardness, Asymmetry - suggestive of malignancy. Pain - Prostatitis, Fluctuance - Prostate abscess Rectal mucosa Rectal Examination

  21. Urinary retention • Recurrent UTIs • Gross hematuria • Bladder calculi • Bladder Diverticuli • Renal failure or uremia Complications of BPH

  22. Urethral Strictures • Bladder Stones • Neurogenic Bladder • Prostatitis • Bladder Tumours • Radiation Cystitis • Interstitial Cystitis Differential Diagnosis

  23. Investigations • Basic Iab: • CBC / S.Creat • Urine routine / culture • PSA(prostate specific antigen) • Xray KUB :calculi • Ultrasound • Uroflowmetry • Flexible Cystoscopy

  24. Prostate Specific Antigen • Secreted by Prostatic cells. • Normal <4ng/dl • Marker for Carcinoma Prostate – Elevated. • BPH does not lead to prostate cancer. However men at risk for BPH are also at risk for prostate cancer and so should be screened. • Not disease specific - Also  in BPH, Prostatitis,DRE,Catheterization • High PSA →Trans rectal US and Biopsy

  25. Ultrasonography • Prostate – Size (>20cm3:abnormal), Nature • Bladder – Wall thickness, Diverticuli, Calculi • Kidneys - Hydronephrosis • Post micturition residual volume(>50-100ml)

  26. Uroflowmetry • Simple noninvasive test to document voiding • Peak Flow rate (>15ml/s is normal) • Voiding time, Voiding pattern • Volume of voided urine – atleast 150ml

  27. Uroflowmetry

  28. Invasive – Urethral / Rectal catheterization. Indication - To distinguish  bladder contractility (detrusorunderactivity) from outlet obstruction. BOO -Low urine flow rates accompanied by High intravesical voiding pressure (>60 cm water) Cystometry - Pressure flow

  29. Cystoscopy Flexible cystoscopy can be easily performed in an office-based setting using topical gel- intraurethralanesthesia without sedation. • Indicated when Suspicion of • Urethral stricture - h/o STD, prolonged catheterization, or trauma • Detrusorhypocontractility - DM

  30. Treatment Options • Watchful waiting • Medical management • Surgical approaches • - Endoscopic surgery • - Minimal invasive procedures • - Open surgery

  31. Watchful Waiting • For mild symptoms. • Follow up 1 to 2 times yearly • Suggestions that help reduce symptoms • - Avoid caffeine and alcohol • - Alteration of timing, volume of fluid intake

  32. Medical Management Disadvantages Drug Interactions Must be taken every day Does not fix problem Side Effects Cost Benefits Convenient No loss of work time Minimal risk Types – Alpha Adrenergic Blockers 5 alpha reductase inhibitors

  33. Alpha 1 Adrenergic Receptors

  34. BPH predominantly stromal (Smooth muscle ) proliferative process - Dynamic Obstruction • Mediated by the alpha1A-adrenergic receptors. • Density of receptors changes with prostate size & age. • Alpha-adrenergic receptor-blocking agents Relax the smooth muscle Decrease outflow resistance. Alpha Blockers - Rationale

  35. Alpha Blockers - Agents • Nonselective • - Phenoxybenzamine • Short-acting selective a1-blocker • - Prazosin, • Long-acting selective a1-blockers • - Terazosin, Doxazosin • Long-acting selective a1A-subtype • - Tamsulosin • - Alfuzosin • - Silodosin 

  36. Quick action Improves urinary flow - 4- to 6-point improvement is expected in IPSS/AUA scores No adverse effect upon sexual drive No effect on PSA Alpha Blockers - Advantages

  37. No effect on Prostate volume No reduction in risk of acute urinary retention or BPH-related surgery. Lowers blood pressure Fatigue, nasal congestion, headache Retrograde Ejaculation Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS) - Miosis, iris billowing, and prolapse in patients undergoing cataract surgery Alpha Blockers - Disadvantages

  38. 5 Alpha Reductase - Rationale • Prostatic growth depends on androgenic stimulation by DHT. • 5-reductase mediates conversion. • Agents that block 5-reductase inhibit growth and therefore help in BPH • Types - type I and type II • Type II predominates in the prostate and other genital tissues.

  39. Finasteride - Selective inhibitor of type II 5-reductase • Dutasteride - Newer agent. Has affinity for both Types • Similar efficacy. • Both agents actively reduce serum DHT levels by more than 80%, 5 Alpha Reductase - Agents

  40. Change in Prostate Volume % Change in prostate volume from baseline Dutasteride Finasteride a-blockers 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 2 yrDB 4 yrOL PLESS4 yr MTOPS4 yr 6 yrOL MTOPS Dox4 yr McConnell et al. (1998); McConnell et al. (2003); Roehrbornet al. (2002); Lowe et al. (2003)

  41. Reduce prostate volume by 20% Improve symptoms in a third of men and increase peak flow by around 2ml/s 55% reduction in incidence of urinary retention, and likelihood of surgery for BPH. Longer acting Less side effects than alpha blockers Can reverse male pattern balding 5 Alpha Reductase - Advantages

  42. 5 Alpha Reductase - Advantages • Reduce bleeding during surgery.

  43. Slow to act - Takes up to six months to work Not effective for mildly enlarged prostates Can affect sexual function Can cause breast swelling Transmitted in semen and can cause birth defects. Users should have protected sex. Caution in liver function abnormalities Lowers serum PSA level by 50% . 5 Alpha Reductase - Disadvantages

  44. Combination Therapy • Activates Two Distinct and Complementary Mechanisms of Action. Alpha blockers 5-Alpha reductase inhibitors Relaxes prostatic and bladder-neck smooth muscle through sympathetic activity blockadeRapidly relieve symptoms Reduces prostate enlargement through hormonal mechanisms Arrest disease progression Dutasteride+Tamsulosin / Finasteride+Tamsulosin.

  45. Decrease in Symptom Score

  46. Increase in Peak Flow

  47. Patients with prostates >30 gm. Superior to monotherapy over long term. Risk of acute urinary retention decreased by 79% - Combination therapy 31% - a-blocker alone 67% - 5a-reductase inhibitor alone. Alpha blocker may be withdrawn after 6 months Combination Therapy

  48. Treatment of associated ED Nitric oxide known to mediate smooth muscle relaxation in the lower urinary tract. Improvements in Urinary symptoms reported Smallest necessary dose. Should not be taken within 4 hours of any alpha-blocker Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors

  49. Treatment of Frequency / Urgency. Relaxes Detrusor muscle. Historically, discouraged because of concerns of inducing urinary retention. Recommend only in patients who do not have an elevated PVR. Not to be used when PVR is greater than 250-300 mL Anticholinergics

  50. Considered emerging therapy • Saw palmetto (American dwarf palm) Leaf • South African star grass (Hypoxisrooperi) roots • African plum tree (Pygeumafricanum) bark • Stinging nettle (Urticadioica) roots • Rye (Secalecereale) pollen • Pumpkin (Cucurbitapepo) seeds Active components - Phytosterols, Fatty acids, Lectins, Flavonoids, Plant oils, & Polysaccharides Phytotherapy