CHAPTER Three Worlds Meet 1 Overview Time Lines 1 Peopling the Americas SECTION 2 Native American Societies Around 1492 SECTION 3 West African Societies Around 1492 SECTION 4 European Societies Around 1492 SECTION 5 Transatlantic Encounters SECTION Chapter Assessment Transparencies
THEMES IN CHAPTER 1 Immigration and Migration Cultural Diversity Science and Technology CHAPTER Three Worlds Meet 1 HOME “Three separate histories collided in the Western Hemisphere half a millennium ago, and American history began.” Edward Countryman, historian
What do you know? • What happens when different societies meet? • How do you define the word immigrant? • Who were the immigrant groups that first settled in what is today the United States? Which of these groups arrived first? • What does the term “First Americans” mean to you? CHAPTER Three Worlds Meet 1 HOME
38,000 B.C.Asian peoples begin to migrate to America over Beringia land bridge. 12,000 Land bridge disappears, ending migration. 1200 Olmec society forms. 800 Adena culture begins building mounds. A.D. 200 Hopewell culture flourishes. 300People first settle the Hawaiian Islands. 1400 Iroquois League is formed. 1000 Viking Leif Ericson reaches what is now Newfoundland. 1440Montezuma becomes ruler of the Aztec Empire. 1492Christopher Columbus reaches America. CHAPTER Time Line 1 HOME The Americas
1000 B.C.Israel becomes a kingdom. 753 Rome is founded. 622 A.D.Prophet Muhammad founds Islam. 1096The Crusades begin. 1440Gutenberg develops printing press using movable type. 1453Portuguese begin West African slave trade. 1494Treaty of Tordesillas defines Portuguese and Spanish claims in the Western Hemisphere. CHAPTER Time Line 1 HOME The World
Learn About the ancient peoples who first settled in the Americas. To Understand how diverse cultures developed as people adapted their ways of life to the varied landscape of the Americas. SECTION 1 Peopling the Americas HOME
SECTION 1 Peopling the Americas HOME Key Idea As early as 40,000 years ago, ancient peoples first settle in the Americas.
Location Civilization Dates southern Mexico 1200 B.C. to 400 B.C. Olmec Adena and Hopewell east of Mississippi River 800 B.C. to A.D. 400 emerged A.D. 1400 western coast of South America Inca Aztec A.D. 1200s to 1500s Valley of Mexico SECTION 1 Peopling the Americas HOME 1 Section Assessment SUMMARIZING What were some of the early civilizations of the Americas, the approximate dates they existed, and their locations?
EVALUATING Which of the ancient empires that flourished in the Americas was most advanced? THINK ABOUT • ways in which the culture adapted to its environment • the achievements of the culture • the qualities of advanced civilizations today SECTION 1 Peopling the Americas HOME 1 Section Assessment
APPLYING What single technological advancement made by ancient cultures was most significant? THINK ABOUT • Middle and South American groups • desert peoples • Mound Builder peoples SECTION 1 Peopling the Americas HOME 1 Section Assessment
Learn About Native American societies, trade, and culture. To Understand the diversity of Native American peoples and how they interacted with one another. SECTION 2 Native American Societies Around 1492 HOME
SECTION 2 Native American Societies Around 1492 HOME Key Idea North America in the 1400s is populated by hundreds of diverse groups with well-established trading and cultural patterns.
Northwest Coast: the Kwakiutl adapted to coast and ocean, collecting shellfish and hunting whales and seals California:the Kashaya Pomo adapted to marshlands and snared waterfowl Eastern Woodlands: the Iroquois adapted to the woodlands by hunting wild game Southwest:the Acoma adapted to cliffs and used rock cisterns to collect rainwater SECTION 2 Native American Societies Around 1492 HOME 2 Section Assessment SUMMARIZING How did Native American societies adapt to the environment of their region? ENVIRONMENTAL ADAPTATION
SYNTHESIZING Were the many Native American groups more diverse than they were similar? THINK ABOUT • adaptation to physical settings • the role of tradition • the variety of goods and languages encountered in trading SECTION 2 Native American Societies Around 1492 HOME 2 Section Assessment
CLARIFYING What three words describe the Native American societies that flourished 500 years ago? THINK ABOUT • the natural resources in their regions • their tools and artwork • their rituals, customs, and traditions SECTION 2 Native American Societies Around 1492 HOME 2 Section Assessment
Learn About trade, societies, and culture in West Africa. To Understand the diversity of West African peoples and how they interacted with one another and the rest of the world. SECTION 3 West African Societies Around 1492 HOME
SECTION 3 West African Societies Around 1492 HOME Key Idea West Africa in the 1400s is home to a variety of peoples who interacted with the wider world through trade.
SUMMARIZING What are details that relate to the following topics? West Africa’s Climate Zones West Africa’s Major Geographical Features Three West African Kingdoms and Their Climate Zones SECTION 3 West African Societies Around 1492 HOME 3 Section Assessment • desert • tropical rain forests • savanna • Sahara Desert • Atlantic coastline • Niger River • Songhai: savanna and desert • Benin: rain forest • Kongo: rain forest
ANALYZING What factors contributed to the thriving trade system that flourished in West Africa? THINK ABOUT • geographic location and features • the kinds of goods exchanged • the societies that emerged in West Africa SECTION 3 West African Societies Around 1492 HOME 3 Section Assessment
COMPARING What are the similarities between West African kingdoms around 1492 and America today? THINK ABOUT • the power of leaders • social and commercial organization • intellectual and artistic activity SECTION 3 West African Societies Around 1492 HOME 3 Section Assessment
Learn About the changes emerging in western European societies. To Understand how these changes spurred the Age of Exploration. SECTION 4 European Societies Around 1492 HOME
SECTION 4 European Societies Around 1492 HOME Key Idea Changes that occur in western European societies spur the Age of Exploration in the 1400s.
SUMMARIZING What are some events and forces that illustrate changes that spurred the Age of Exploration in western Europe? economic political centralized states growth of commerce Changes in western Europe declining papal authority joint-stock companies social cultural renewed missionary calling Renaissancespirit of adventure technological population growth travel stories printing press improvements in mapmaking SECTION 4 European Societies Around 1492 HOME 4 Section Assessment
ANALYZING Which European event of the late 1400s and early 1500s had the most far-reaching impact? THINK ABOUT • the importance of religion • the role of adventurers and explorers • the rise in prosperity SECTION 4 European Societies Around 1492 HOME 4 Section Assessment
DRAWING CONCLUSIONS Why did other European nations lag behind Portugal in the race for overseas exploration? THINK ABOUT • the geography of Portugal • the power of monarchs in the 1400s • the economic and political situation of European nations at that time SECTION 4 European Societies Around 1492 HOME 4 Section Assessment
Learn About Columbus’s transatlantic voyages and early interaction with Native Americans. To Understand how these encounters permanently changed Africa, Europe, the Americas, and the world. SECTION 5 Transatlantic Encounters HOME
SECTION 5 Transatlantic Encounters HOME Key Idea Columbus’s voyage in 1492 sets events in motion that permanently change Africa, Europe, the Americas, and the rest of the world.
SUMMARIZING What were the major events of Columbus’s voyages and interactions with Native Americans? 1495Rebellion of Taino of Hispaniola against Spanish 1492Columbus’s first voyage to the Americas 1504Columbus returns to Spain 1493Columbus’s return trip to the Americas Columbus’s conquest of St. Croix 1500Columbus asked to leave Hispaniola because of inability to maintain order SECTION 5 Transatlantic Encounters HOME 5 Section Assessment
GENERALIZING A stereotype is an oversimplified opinion or image. What stereotypes might Columbus and his soldiers have formed about Native Americans, and Native Americans might have formed about Spaniards? Why? THINK ABOUT • Columbus’s journal entries • Columbus and his soldiers’ methods of colonization • Native Americans’ attempts to resist conquest SECTION 5 Transatlantic Encounters HOME 5 Section Assessment
ANALYZING EFFECTS What were three of the most important long-term consequences of Columbus’s encounters in the Americas? THINK ABOUT • conquering and claiming land • forced labor of Native Americans and Africans • the impact on Africa, Europe, and the Americas SECTION 5 Transatlantic Encounters HOME 5 Section Assessment
1 Chapter Assessment HOME 1. What theories explain when and how the first people arrived in the Americas? 2. Give two examples of how ancient societies demonstrated their resourcefulness in adapting to their physical environments. 3. Provide two examples of how Native American societies drew upon or honored their cultural heritage. 4. Describe three broad cultural patterns that the diverse Native American societies shared. 5. What exchanges of goods and ideas occurred as a result of trade routes across the Sahara?
1 Chapter Assessment HOME 6. What were three West African kingdoms that flourished in the late 1400s and early 1500s? 7. What three effects did the Crusades have on European society in the 1400s? 8. What were the most significant Portuguese explorations? 9. What methods of colonization, based on earlier models, did Spain use in the Americas? 10. What unfulfilled goal left Columbus disappointed at the end of his life?