Warm up discussion • What is Hyland’s main argument? • What are some similarities across disciplines? And differences? • What kinds of information called your attention when visiting the Purdue OWL Website? • Do you know what style is used in your major and how to use it?
What info do we need? • Title: The Book on Writing: The Ultimate Guide to Writing Well • Author: Paula LaRoque • Year: 2003 • Press: Marion Street Press • City: Portland • Number of Pages: 240
Styles: Why? • Attributes prior work and ideas to the correct sources; • Makes researches more uniform; • Makes it easier to find source; • Upholds intellectual honesty.
What Are There Different Citation Styles? • MLA (Modern Language Association) - most common in the humanities. • APA style (American Psychological Association) - most common in the social sciences. • Chicago Style (defined by the University of Chicago) - especially popular in historical research. • ACS (American Chemical Society) – most common in chemistry related fields. • CBE (Council of Biology Editors) – Science-related fields • IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) • NLM (National Library of Medicine) • Vancouver (Biological Sciences) • AAA (American Anthropological Association) • APSA (American Political Science Association) • AMA (American Citation Style) – used by the American Medical Association http://www.plagiarism.org/plag_article_citation_styles.html
Why are there so many different styles? • Clinton, Bill. Interview by Andrew C. Revkin. “Clinton on Climate Change.” New York Times. New York Times, May 2007. Web. 25 May 2009. • Gowdy, John. "Avoiding Self-organized Extinction: Toward a Co-evolutionary Economics of Sustainability." International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 14.1 (2007): 27-36. Print. • Leroux, Marcel. Global Warming: Myth Or Reality?: The Erring Ways of Climatology. New York: Springer, 2005. Print.
In-text citations • Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feel • We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has "more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change . . ." ("Impact of Global Warming" 6). ings" (Wordsworth 263).
Why are there so many different styles? • Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. • O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: A metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York, NY: Springer.
In-text citations • According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199). • She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.
Why are there so many different styles? • MLA: Because humanities research highlights how one piece of writing influences another, MLA style emphasizes the author’s name and the page in the original text you’re using. This information allows scholars to track down easily the exact sentences you’re analyzing. • APA: Although the author’s name is an important element in APA citations, this style emphasizes the year the source was published, rather than the page number, which allows a reader to see quickly how the research you’re writing about has evolved over time. • Chicago: When developing a historical explanation from multiple primary sources, using footnotes instead of inserting parenthetical information allows the reader to focus on the evidence instead of being distracted by the publication information about that evidence
Which style is used in your major? Visit the OWL Website and Purdue Website to find out what style is used by people in your field.
Now, let’s practice! • Style exercise