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Conventions of Punctuation

Conventions of Punctuation

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Conventions of Punctuation

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  1. Conventions of Punctuation 20-23

  2. Tutorial #1 • Tutorial #1: Use commas to set off nonessential phrases • Important terms: • Nonessentials: extra information that helps to add detail but is not necessary to the overall understanding of a sentence and may be removed without harm. • The Rule: All nonessentials must be surrounded by punctuation

  3. Examples of Essential and Nonessential Sentences Essential Nonessential Harold, the boy wearing the red shirt, is in trouble with the deans. Mrs. Hamilton, who lives next door, has four cats. Daughtry, the band, has the number one song. • The boy wearing the red shirt is in trouble with the deans. • The lady who lives next door has four cats. • The band Daughtry has the number one song.

  4. Types of Nonessentials • Aside or Interrupter • Participial Phrase • Nonessential Clause • The Appositive • Dependent Clause

  5. Aside or Interrupter Function Identifier/Examples A few interrupters: well_, okay, yes, no, however, for example, they say, of course Examples: -Abortion, they claim, is murder. -However, abortion isn’t the only issue they care about. -Abortion is, well, simply wrong. -Finally, she made the right decision. • A word or phrase that “interrupts” the sentence but is not really needed; it is a side comment

  6. Participial Phrase Function Identifier/Example Present participial phrases “ing” verbs Past participial phrases: A verb that goes with “have” (i.e. broken) Examples: David, wearing only a robe, went outside to get the newspaper. Eaten by the vultures, the carcass now attracted only flies. • A phrase that gives extra information and begins with a participle • NOTE: sometimes these phrases are essential and do not get commas

  7. Nonessential Clause Function Identifier/Example Identifier: Which, Who, Whom, Where Examples: My English class, which I enjoy very much, went on a field trip. Gregory, who owns four cars, drove us to school today. The Democrat, whom I would normally not support, had a very good idea. • A clause that gives extra information about the subject and begins with who, whom, which, where • NOTE #1: if the clause begins with “that,” it becomes essential and does NOT get commas • NOTE #2: any of these can also be ESSENTIAL, in which case they would not get surrounded by punctuation

  8. The Appositive Function Identifier/Example Usually a noun, may begin with the word “THE” or “A” Also can begin with a number, personal pronoun, or adjective Examples: Harper Lee, the author, grew up in the 1930s. Kendra, my sister, married her high school sweetheart. • A phrase that gives extra information about the subject but is not needed to identify the subject

  9. Dependent Clause Function Identifier/Example After, before, because, if, since, although, when(ever), as, while, until, whether, unless Also: in order, so that, no matter, in that, even though Examples: Whenever they go out, Valerie drives. After they discussed the situation, the answer was clear. • A clause that begins with ABBI SAW A WUWU • NOTE: there is an important exception to the rule with Dependent Clauses: When they are at the end of a sentence, NO COMMA IS NEEDED • D, I • I D

  10. How would you punctuate the nonessentials in each sentence? • Kevin who asked Jim to be at Hersey at 8 showed up late anyway. • Type of nonessential: • That my friends is awesome. • Type of nonessential: • Patty ran to the bathroom hoping that it would be locked. • Type of nonessential: ________/6 pts.

  11. How would you punctuate the nonessentials in each sentence? • Kevin, who asked Jim to be at Hersey at 8, showed up late anyway. • Type of nonessential: NONESSENTIAL CLAUSE • That, my friends, is awesome. • Type of nonessential: ASIDE OR INTERRUPTER • Patty ran to the bathroom, hoping that it would be locked. • Type of nonessential: PARTICIPIAL PHRASE ________/6 pts.

  12. Suggestions for Using Separating Nonessentials • Example #1: “The number one novel Amy Tan’s The Kitchen God’s Wife is boldly circled.” ___________/2 pts. • Rewrite the sentence with correct punctuation. • Why is this correct?

  13. Suggestions for Using Separating Nonessentials • Example #1: “The number one novel Amy Tan’s The Kitchen God’s Wife is boldly circled.” ___________/2 pts. • Rewrite the sentence with correct punctuation. • The number one novel, Amy Tan’s The Kitchen God’s Wife, is boldly circled. • Why is this correct? • This is correct because “Amy Tan’s The Kitchen God’s Wife” is a nonessential (appositive)

  14. Commas & Nonessentials on ACT • Example #1: Abruptly, a voice came over the loudspeaker and exclaimed, “Attention please. The students, who will be running for student council, should please report to the cafeteria immediately.” __________/2 pts. • A. NO CHANGE B. students who will be running, for student council, should C. students who will be running for student council should D. students who will be running for student, council, should Why?

  15. Commas & Nonessentials on ACT • Example #1: Abruptly, a voice came over the loudspeaker and exclaimed, “Attention please. The students, who will be running for student council, should please report to the cafeteria immediately.” __________/2 pts. • A. NO CHANGE B. students who will be running, for student council, should C. students who will be running for student council should D. students who will be running for student, council, should Why?

  16. Tutorial 1 Writing Application • Write four sentences that have nonessentials. 1. 2. 3. 4. _________/4 pts.

  17. Tutorial 1 Reflection • Tutorial 1: Correct Comma Usage • _________/14 points • What do I still need to work on? Use the space below to explain.

  18. Tutorial #2 Tutorial 2: Recognize and delete unnecessary commas. • There are two types of unnecessary comma problems: • COMMA SPLICE: Use of a comma between two independent clauses (complete sentences) --Samantha used her laptop, Mary used the computer lab. INCORRECT • UNNECESSARY COMMA: Use of a comma in a compound verb or compound subject -Jill walked to the park, and ran to her mother’s house after work. (compound verb) INCORRECT

  19. Most Common Comma Splices/Unnecessary Commas • That • The car that, has a broken window is in the shop. (INCORRECT) • Because • The car is in the shop, because it has a broken window. (INCORRECT) • FANBOYS • The car has a broken window now, but is being fixed. (INCORRECT) • 2 Sentences • The car has a broken window, it is in the shop. (INCORRECT) • Verbs • The car with the broken window is, in the shop. (INCORRECT) • Prepositional Phrases • The car, with the broken window, is in the shop. (INCORRECT)

  20. Where would you delete the unnecessary commas? • It would have been, a thought, and only a thought. • The bomb would have instilled fear within their people, and would have pressured the Japanese government to sign a treaty to get out of the war. • It was a good decision to drop the bomb in Japan, for various reasons. • The war, that never seems to end, is in Iraq. ________/4 pts.

  21. Where would you delete the unnecessary commas? • It would have been, a thought, and only a thought. • The bomb would have instilled fear within their people, and would have pressured the Japanese government to sign a treaty to get out of the war. • It was a good decision to drop the bomb in Japan, for various reasons. • The war, that never seems to end, is in Iraq. ________/4 pts.

  22. Deleting Unnecessary Commas in the ACT • Example #1: For the past ten years, cities across the country have reported higher average temperature during the summer. Many have stopped spending time, outside, as temperatures make outdoor activities increasingly uncomfortable. _________/2 pts. • A. NO CHANGE B. spending time outside, as temperatures C. spending time outside as temperatures D. , spending time outside, as temperatures Why?

  23. Deleting Unnecessary Commas in the ACT • Example #1: For the past ten years, cities across the country have reported higher average temperature during the summer. Many have stopped spending time, outside, as temperatures make outdoor activities increasingly uncomfortable. _________/2 pts. • A. NO CHANGE B. spending time outside, as temperatures C. spending time outside as temperatures D. , spending time outside, as temperatures Why?

  24. Deleting Unnecessary Commas in the ACT Example #2: Countless baseball fans across the City of Chicago have given up their loyalty to the White Sox in favor of the Cubs. The reason is, the Cubs are just more fun. ____________/2 pts. 2. A. NO CHANGE B. The reason is the Cubs C. The reason is the Cubs, D. The reason is, the Cubs, Why?

  25. Deleting Unnecessary Commas in the ACT Example #2: Countless baseball fans across the City of Chicago have given up their loyalty to the White Sox in favor of the Cubs. The reason is, the Cubs are just more fun. ____________/2 pts. 2. A. NO CHANGE B. The reason is the Cubs C. The reason is the Cubs, D. The reason is, the Cubs, Why?

  26. Example #1 “The bluebirds built a nest in a big oak tree outside our house, last night.” Rewrite the sentence correctly. • Why is this version correct? _________/2 pts.

  27. Example #1 “The bluebirds built a nest in a big oak tree outside our house, last night.” Rewrite the sentence correctly. The bluebirds built a nest in a big oak tree outside our house last night. • Why is this version correct? “last night” is essential information and should not be surrounded by puntuation. _________/2 pts.

  28. Example #2 “The first reason for the increase in sports injuries is, a clear lack of funding for equipment.” • Rewrite this sentence correctly. • Why is the new version correct? __________/2 pts

  29. Example #2 “The first reason for the increase in sports injuries is, a clear lack of funding for equipment.” • Rewrite this sentence correctly. The first reason for the increase in sports injuries is a clear lack of funding for equipment. • Why is the new version correct? __________/2 pts

  30. Tutorial 2 Reflection • Tutorial 2: Deleting Unnecessary Commas • _________/12 pts. • What do I still need to work on? Use the space below to explain.

  31. CoP Reflection

  32. Exit Slip: Practice! • Put the commas in the correct places for the following sentences (each sentence has 1-2 mistakes): • The boy Sam went to the market to buy some fresh fruit. • However he got lost on his way there. • When he finally found his way he was worried he would not know his way back. • Nonetheless he was determined to get the apples bananas and oranges that his mom asked for. • He gathered the fruit in a basket that was sitting in the front part of the store and he waited in line to check out. • Finally Sam was so excited to go home, he wanted to rest.

  33. Conventions of Punctuation 24-27

  34. Tutorial #1: Commas, Parenthesis, Dashes We’ve already learned about nonessentials. There are several ways to set off nonessentials: using commas, using parenthesis, using dashes. Using commas: Harry and Barbara, the two whacky neighbors who live three doors down, put their house up for sale today. Using parenthesis: Harry and Barbara (boy, are they a whacky couple) put their house up for sale today. Using Dashes: Harry and Barbara—who live two doors down and are both whacky—put their house up for sale today.

  35. Nonessentials need to be surrounded by punctuation. There are five possibilities: In the middle of a sentence: In the beginning of a sentence: 4) CAPITAL LETTER AND COMMA (or dash) Nonessential, At the end of a sentence: 5) Comma (or dash) and Period , nonessential • COMMAS , nonessential, • PARENTHESIS (nonessential) • DASHES --nonessential--

  36. How would you punctuate these nonessentials? 1) My mother (who nags me constantly about my driving) let me take her new BMW to prom. 2) Deanna Bingham– running scared –thought she saw a ghost. 3) Thinking about her recent loss, the woman sat quietly and rocked in her chair for hours. 4) Bradley opened the door slowly, hoping the dog wouldn’t bite him. ______/4

  37. Example #1 The rainstorm continued for four hours that day. The streets flooded, the rivers overflowed, and many homes were damaged. Kevin decided not to attend the party. Kevin who never missed Jim’s birthday just couldn’t just get out of his driveway that night. ______/1 • A. NO CHANGE B. Kevin, who never missed Jim’s birthday just C. Kevin (who never missed Jim’s birthday) just [CORRECT] D. Kevin who never missed Jim’s birthday, just Why?

  38. Example #2 The election results were not reported when expected. The precincts all experienced technical difficulties with their new touch screen voting. Luckily, Greg Roberts– a computer expert at one of the precincts was able to eventually fix the problem, and the results were finally tallied. _____/1 2) A. NO CHANGE B. , a computer expert at one of the precincts was C. a computer expert at one of the precincts was D. a computer expert at one of the precincts– was [CORRECT] Why?

  39. Example #3 The teacher graded the research papers all day at Starbucks. She grew more frustrated as the hours passed. She thought she taught the students exactly how to write their papers but the grades indicated that the students simply did not get it. ______/1 3) A. NO CHANGE B. their papers; but C. their papers, but [CORRECT] D. their papers: but, Why?

  40. Tutorial #1 Reflection Tutorial 1: Commas, Dashes, Parentheses • _________/7 pts. • What do I still need to work on? Use the space below to explain.

  41. Tutorial #2: Comma Splice Practice • The boss and the secretary bought lunch for the employee of the month. • Gwen ate her sandwich and went back to work. • Reid answered the phone; Larry ran the errands. _____/3

  42. Comma Splice in ACT #1 Planning a wedding places a great amount of stress on both the bride-to-be and the groom-to-be. In addition to the stress of planning, the couple is also faced with the financial pressures this brings. The cost of flowers, and dresses continue to rise annually. Banquet halls and honeymoons also cost quite a bit of money. ______/1 • A. NO CHANGE B. of flowers, or C. of flowers; and D. of flowers and [CORRECT]

  43. Comma Splice in ACT #2 When the wedding day finally arrives, the stress levels don’t dwindle. The bride and groom often grow anxious and nervous on the actual day. Last minute jitters kick in and last minute problems arise. _____/1 2) A. NO CHANGE B. in; and C. in, and [CORRECT] D. in and then the sudden

  44. Tutorial #2 Reflection • Tutorial 2: Comma Splice • _________/5 pts. • What do I still need to work on? Use the space below to explain.

  45. Tutorial #3: Using Apostrophes • An apostrophe is used to show possession. Apostrophes are NOT used to make an item plural except in three very special cases. • APOSTROPHES FOR SINGULAR NOUNS: use an apostrophe to show possession with ‘s Kevin’s dog The king’s crown His wife’s happiness • APOSTROPHES FOR COLLECTIVE NOUNS: The people’s choice The group’s decision • APOSTROPHES FOR PLURAL NOUNS: use an apostrophe to show possession with s’ Both neighbors’ dogs All the kings’ crowns Their wives’ pictures

  46. Apostrophes Practice • Rachel’s car died again. • We spent four hours at James Smith’s house. • The Joneses’ backyard is bigger than ours. • All of the villages’ mayors attended. • She purchases three new pairs of shoes. • Luke owns seven cars. _____/6

  47. Apostrophes in ACT #1 There was no doubt that she would win the race. Helens’ car had a bigger engine, a better system, and more durable parts. Additionally, her crew was the best in the country. _____/1 • A. NO CHANGE B. Helens C. Helen’s D. Helen Why?

  48. Apostrophes in ACT #2 While there were many women who influenced rock in the 1980s, Madonna certainly was the most influential. She changed dance floors and pop radio stations throughout the decade and beyond. _____/1 2) A. NO CHANGE B. 1980’s C. 1980s’ D. 1980-1990 Why?

  49. Tutorial 3: Reflection Tutorial 3: Apostrophes • _________/8 pts. • What do I still need to work on? Use the space below to explain.

  50. Tutorial #4: Using Colons & Semicolons • A COLON connects two independent clauses. • A colon can be used to connect two independent clauses, similar to a semicolon. The big difference is that when a colon connects two independent clauses, the clause on the right illustrates or elaborates upon the clause to the left. Gayle had a terrible day: she got a flat tire, hit a pole, and lost her license. • The SEMICOLON is used to join two independent clauses. • A semicolon may also be used to join two independent clauses using a transition (or interrupter). Mary drives a Honda; however, James drives a Mercedes.