Period Rules • A period (called a `full stop` in British English) is used to mark the end of a sentence. The next idea is not related or too long. • On the weekend I went to a movie. I visited my father the next week since I had not seen him for some time. • Use a period after titles: Mr. Mrs. Dr. Jr.
Periodrules…. • When quoting, place the period outside the quotation marks if there is no period within the quoted text. • Dr. Smith`s study shows ``consistency between the two results``. (In this case, Dr. Smith`s sentence continues but mine does not.)
Period or semicolon or conjunction? Period: Two sentences are completelyunrelated. Two sentences are related but too long to join. Semicolon: Two sentences are independent & related. Creates more flow than a period. Conjunction: Whenyouwant to emphasize the connectionbetweentwo sentences (similar, contrast, etc.)
Comma Rules • Commas are used in many ways in English. 1. In lists to separate items in a list. • We bought chairs, a couch, a table, and a desk. • The comma before the ``and`` is called an Oxford comma and is optional. If you choose to use it, you should use it for every list.
Comma rulescont’d 2. To separate clauses: between a dependent clause and an independent clause if the dependent clause comes first. • Since I have been in Ottawa, I have toured the Parliament buildings and seen the Currency Museum. • Vs. I have toured the Parlia • From the corner of the sampling plot to the center, the distance was 20 m. • In the area behind the tree you will see the lizard.
Comma rulescont’d • Use a comma before a conjunction (e.g. but, because) that joins two independent clauses e.g. We tried to elimate the sources of error, but there were too many.
Comma rules….cond 4. Commas are used around phrases within a sentence or before phrases that add additional information e.g. Haitians, who for decades have lived in poverty and violence, are unfamiliar with a real democracy.
When not to use commas • Do not separate a subject from its description e.g. Registering for our fitness programs before Friday, will save you $30. • Do not separate a verb from its object or complement/ or a preposition from its object e.g. I will send you before September, a snapshot of my dog and cat. We sampled with, a trowel, a hoist and a shovel.
When not to use commas 3. For short phrases E.g. After dinner, we will play badminton. 4. Not before the first and last items in a list E.g. You should practice your music, dance and drama, for as long as possible.
Semi-colon Rules • There are three main uses of the semi-colon in English. (1) Used in a list between items with internal punctuation. • She saw three men: Jamie, who came from New Zealand; John, the milkman's son; and George, a gaunt kind of man.
(2) Used between related independent clauses not joined by a coordinating conjunction. • At the mall I bought four things; my sister bought only two things. (3) Used between independent clauses joined by a transitional phrase or adverb. • It can occur in both melodic and harmonic lines; however, it is subject to certain restraints.
Colon Rules • A colon informs the reader that what comes after the mark proves, explains, or lists elements of what came before the mark. There are three main uses: (1) Introduces a logical consequence or result (emphasis) • There was only one possible explanation: the train had never arrived.
(2) Introduces a description or list. • I have three sisters: Daphne, Rose, and Suzanne. (3) Used between two independent clauses when the second clause defines, modifies or explains the first. • Daniel couldn’t walk: he was drunk. *Note: • In British English the clause after the colon is not capitalized unless it starts with a proper noun. • In American English the clause after the colon is capitalized.
Quotation Mark Rules (1) Use quotation marks when you are writing someone`s exact words. • Our teacher said, ``Please study for the test on Monday.`` (2) Usually use a comma between the quote and the rest of the sentence. (3) The punctuation of the quote is placed inside the final set of quotation marks.
In academic writing, quotation marks must be used when quoting another person`s ideas from a larger body of work. • The study reported ``an increase of the chemical in pregnant women.`` • In this case, a comma is not used between the quotation marks and the rest of the sentence. Watch out for plagiarism!
Other punctuation • The dash • The brackets • http://www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/writcent/hypergrammar/rvpunct.html • http://www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/writcent/hypergrammar/rvaddpct.html
Right or wrong? • Canada’s government is a democracy and anyone over 18 can vote. • John is 21, but he decided not to vote. • George can take the bus or he can ride his bike to work. • Mary is going on vacation this week, so she is trying to find someone to take care of her dog.
Punctuation missing? • You can rent this apartment, but you cannot have any pets. • I want to buy a house so I’m saving money for a down payment. • She is allergic to flowers, yet roses don’t make her sneeze. • This book is not interesting nor does it give any useful information.
Compound-Complex Sentences • A compound-complex sentence is made up of two independent clauses (IC) and one or more dependent clauses (DC). • Although I like to go camping (DC), I haven’t had time lately (IC), and I haven’t found anyone to go with (IC). • Use a comma between the two independent clauses. • Use a comma after the dependent clause if an independent clause follows it. (see above)
Quick aside about conjunctions • AND joins two sentences that are similar. • OR joins two sentences that give choices. • BUT joins sentences that are opposite or show contrast • SO joins sentences where the second sentence shows a result of the first sentence • FOR has the same meaning as “because”. It shows a reason or cause. • YET has the same meaning as “but” and is used when the result is surprising. • NOR means “not this and not that” and is used to join two negative sentences.
Subordinators • A dependent clause always begins with a subordinator. • Because I was worried, I called to check on him. • Subordinators can show time: after, when, until, whenever, before. • Cause/effect: since, so that, because • Compare/contrast: although, even though, while, whereas • Possibility: if, as if, whether, unless • Place/manner: wherever, where, how
Common punctuationerrors The comma splice: - incorrect joining of two independent clauses with a comma e.g. Researcherssubscribe to thistheory, it has not yet been refuted.
Common errors • Comma splicecont’d…. Solutions? • Join the clauses with a conjunction Researcherssubscribe to thistheory as/since/becauseit has not yet been refuted. • Join them with a semicolon Researchers subscribe to this theory; it has not yet been refuted.
Common errors – comma splice • Another example: Identification of DNA structure was not the study goal, still we determined the sequence of the organism. Must separate or use semicolon