Punctuation The Daily Edit
The Colon : • Rule #1 You only use a colon after statements that are complete sentences. • Ex:) Ms. Freese has two favorite Thanksgiving dishes: turkey and cranberry sauce. • The reason this works is because Ms. Freese has two favorite Thanksgiving dishes is a complete sentence on its own.
The Colon: • Rule # 2 You use colons when are you are going to create a list. • Ex:) Ms. Freese went to the store and bought several items: a pair of shoes, a dress, and a tee-shirt.
The Colon : • Your TurnDoes the colon belong in this sentence? • Ms. Freese’s favorite Thanksgiving dishes are: turkey and cranberry sauce.
The Colon: • No, what could you do to make the colon work? • Add the following • Ms. Freese’s favorite Thanksgiving dishes are the following: turkey and cranberry sauce.
The Colon : • Rule # 3You use a colon when you want to emphasize what’s to come or to clarify, as well as introduce or define something. • Ex:) I only want to know one thing: Where did you put the casserole dish? • Rule#4 • Colon’s are also used when you write out what time it is. • Ex:) The class begins promptly at 8:30 tomorrow morning
Helpful Hint • Helpful Hint: If you aren’t sure if you should use a colon in a sentence, try replacing the colon with namely. • Ex:) Ms. Freese has two favorite Thanksgiving dishes, namely, turkey and cranberry sauce. If you can replace the colon with namely, you are most likely right
Semicolons ; • Rule #1 • The semicolon is used to separate two main clauses that are closely related to each other, but could stand on their own. • Ex:) Brandon Roy plays for the Blazers; he is the best player on the team. The reason this works is because both clauses are closely related.
Semicolons ; • You Try • Does the semicolon work in the following sentence? • Brandon Roy plays for the Blazers; he eats pizza every Friday.
Semicolons ; • Rule # 2When you are writing a list that contains commas within it, you use the semicolon to separate each item. Ex:) Brandon Roy enjoys playing Cleveland, Ohio; Orlando, Florida and Boston, Masschusetts.
Semicolons • You Try • Where do the semicolons belong in the sentence below? • Brandon Roy has friends that live in Portland, Oregon, Chicago, Illinois and New York, New York.
Semicolons ; • Why would you choose to use a semicolon instead of a period? • Hmmmmmm….what do you think? Share out!
Semicolons ; • Powerful writing is writing that varies in sentence structure. If all your sentences are short and choppy or all your sentences are long and use coordinating conjunctions, you may want to try the semicolon to keep things fresh.
Semicolons ; • Another reason to try using the semicolon is when you want to emphasize and draw attention to the relationship between two clauses. • Ex: Brandon Roy went to practice. He ate dinner late. I wouldn’t use a semicolon here because the two clauses aren’t closely related.
The colon : vs. the semicolon ; • So what is the difference between the colon and the semicolon anyways? • Hmmm…Ideas? Share out!
The colon : vs. the semicolon ; • Difference # 1 • The purpose of the colon is often to introduce, define or clarify something. The purpose of the semicolon is to connect two closely related clauses and illustrate a relationship.
The colon : vs. the semicolon ; • Difference # 2When you use a semicolon you are joining things of equal weight. When you use a colon you are joining things of unequal weight. • You TryBrandon Roy has one best friend: Lebron James. Why can’t we use a semicolon here?
Helpful Hint • Think of it this way. If you have two equal elements, you use a semicolon. Like two basketballs that are the same size and weight. If you have two unequal elements, like a baseball and a basketball you use a colon.
Apostrophe ‘ • Rule # 1 Apostrophes are used to indicate possession. • Ex:) Blair Waldorf’s collection of headbands is extensive.
Apostrophe ‘ • Rule # 2 • Apostrophes stand in for something that is missing. They are most commonly used in contractions. • Ex:) Serena can’t believe that Blair didn’t get into Yale.
Apostrophes: The Grey Areas • Apostrope usage gets tricky at times. Jot down these additional rules in your Daily Edit Notebook. • if the word ending with s is plural, such as aardvarks, then you just add an apostrophe at the end to make it possessive. For example, you could write, The aardvarks’ journey to the zoo was long.
Apostrophes: The Grey Areas • Plural words that don't end with s, such as children, do take an apostrophe s at the end for possession. For example, you could write, "Fortunately, the children's room had a hidden doorway."
Apostrophes: The Grey Areas • To make a singular word that ends in spossessive, do not add an additional s, just add an apostrophe. For example, Sam Thomas’ car was towed because he didn’t put money in the meter. • Ex:) Ms. Freese grew up on Kansas’ wide open spaces and fields. • Note: At the end of the day this is a style choice. Writers leave off the additional s.
Apostrophes: Your Turn • Where do the apostrophes go in the following sentences? • 1. All the actors call times for Gossip Girl were very early in the morning. • 2. Chuck Bass car of choice is a limo. • 3. Jenny cant believe she was such a young fashion designer. Contraction
Ellipses … • Rule #1 • You use an ellipses to indicate an omission-that you are leaving something out. If you are quoting someone and you want to shorten the quote, you use ellipses to show where you dropped words or sentences. Ex:)Here's a quote from the book Our Mutual Friend by Charles Dickens: “I cannot help it; reason has nothing to do with it; I love her against reason.”
Ellipses … • “I cannot help it . . . I love her against reason.” • The ellipses take the place of the missing words or phrases in the quotation. • You TryShorten the quotation below by taking out a phrase and adding ellipses. • This quotation is fromUgliesby Scott Westerfeld. “The spill didn’t hurt so much, this time. The moment her feet slipped off the hoverboard, she’d relaxed, the way Shay kept telling her to do.”
Ellipses … • Check Yourself: Did you change the meaning of the quotation by removing a phrase and adding ellipses? You should only use ellipses to alter a quotation if the meaning remains clear and unchanged. You are making the quotation less redundant.
Ellipses … • Rule # 2 • Use ellipses to indicate a pause in someone’s train of thought. • Ex:)I can try to give you directions. You need to get on the highway and then you drive for…oh, three more miles, and it is on the left.
Ellipses … • Rule # 3 • The Ellipses are always three dots. Not one, not two, but three. • You Try • Kobe Bryant was running very fast and I..couldn’t get over how athletic he is.
Commas , • Rule # 1 • You use commas to separate items in a series. There are usually three items in a series. • Ex:) Green Day, Weezer, and The White Stripes are all alternative bands.
Commas , • Rule # 2 • You use commas between coordinative adjectives. • Ex:) We saw a fun, exciting Green Day concert last summer.
Commas , • Rule # 3 • Use a comma before and, but, or, nor, for, so, or yet to join two independent clauses that form a compound sentence. • Ex:) Ms. Freese likes Death Cab for Cutie, and she also enjoys Feist. • You TryDoes this sentence use commas correctly?
Commas , • Ms. Freese likes Death Cab for Cutie, and also enjoys Feist. • In the above example, two verb groups are being joined by and. The second verb group does NOT have a subject; thus, it is NOT an independent clause.
Commas , • Rule # 4 • You use a comma after long introductory phrases that tell when, where, why, and how. • Ex:) During the summer of 2009, The Black Eyed Peas were a popular band. • Ex:) To get concert tickets, I had to wait in line.
Commas , • Be Careful! If a clause comes at the end of a sentence, don’t use a comma. • Ex:) The Black Eyed Peas were a popular band during the summer of 2009.
Commas , • Rule # 5 • Separate with a comma any nonessential words or groups of words from the rest of the sentence. Nonessential words are often “interrupter” words like however, nevertheless, yes, no and of course.
Commas , • Rule # 5 • Separate a “renamer” (an appositive) from the rest of the sentence with a comma. • Ex:) My favorite singer, Feist, has been on a television commerical. • Ex:) Feist, my favorite singer has a unique voice.
Commas , • Rule # 6 • Separate nonessential adjective clauses (additional information) from the sentence using commas. • There are two kinds of adjective clauses: - one that is needed for the sentence to be complete (ESSENTIAL)- one that is NOT needed for the sentence to be complete (NONESSENTIAL)
Commas , • Ex:) The man who robbed the bank was caught today. • Vs. • Ex:) Sam Spider, who robbed the bank, was caught today. • Your Turn • Which of these sentences has an essential adjective clause? Which is nonessential?
Commas , • The man who robbed the bank was caught today. • The adjective clause, who robbed the bank is essential because without it we don’t know which man was caught. • Sam Spider, who robbed the bank, was caught today. The adjective clause, who robbed the bank if nonessential because without it we still know who robbed the bank, Sam Spider.
Commas , • Example:) The guitar player, however, forgot that he had broken strings. • Example:) Yes, the singer is standing on the front of the stage.