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Punctuation

Punctuation

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Punctuation

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  1. Punctuation

  2. End Notes • Periods • Question Marks • Exclamation Point

  3. Semicolons • Use a semicolon to separate two independent clauses not joined by a conjunction. Clauses must directly relate to each other. • My mother works in a school; she does not teach. • Can also be used to separate clauses that are joined by a conjunctive adverb or transitional expression • A cloudless blue sky dawned that morning; nevertheless, rain was expected. • We needed to fit the whole family around the dinner table; as a result, Dad pulled out the extra leaf.

  4. Colon • Used mainly as an introductory device before a list • I bought my father several gifts: a shirt, a tie, and a pair of shorts. • Use to introduce a sentence that summarizes or explains the sentence before it. • His tuna casserole lacked one vital ingredient: He forgot the tuna! • Use to introduce a formal appositive that follows an independent clause. • I missed one important paragraph lesson: writing a topic sentence.

  5. Quotation Marks • Use to show a direct quotation • Joey said, “I love ham and cheese sandwiches in the morning!” • Use around titles of short works of literature (short stories, poems, etc.) • “Ambush”

  6. Underlining • Underline long written works, such as books, plays, periodicals, newspapers, and long poems • The Stranger • The New York Times • Underline movies, t.v. shows, radio shows, paintings, sculptures, and other works of art • Underline the names of individual sea, space, and land craft • USS Alabama

  7. Dashes • Used to indicate an abrupt change in thought • I cannot believe I missed that test- oh, I don’t even want to think about it. • Used to set off interrupting ideas dramatically • The slam dunk-the most spectacular shot in basketball- makes a great addition to any highlight film. • To set off a summary statement • To see his jersey hanging from the rafters- this is his greatest dream.

  8. Parentheses • Used to set off asides and explanations when the information is not necessary. • Nancy perfected her passing (only after years of practice) and will now begin the year as the starting point guard. • Used to set off numerical expressions • John Smith (1875-1950) was a great teacher.

  9. Hyphens • Used to divide certain numbers and words • Ninety-nine • One-half • All-star • Senator-elect • Used in compound words • Well-prepared • Jet-propelled

  10. Apostrophe • Used to show possession • Add an ‘s to the end of singular nouns- dog’s; Sarah’s; James’s • Add an ‘ to show possession at the end of plural nouns that end in s or es- moths’; cats’ • Used in contraction • Used to show a missing letter or letters • Are not- aren’t • I am- I’m • ‘03