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  1. Punctuation Weeks 16, 17, 18

  2. On top of periods, question marks and exclamation points... • Did you know there is a whole world of punctuation out there to give your sentences meaning? • It may seem complicated now when we start discussing colons, semi-colons, hyphens, dashes, etc. • I promise to make it as simple as possible.

  3. Colons • Not this kind of colon: • This kind of colon:

  4. Colons - Lists • Use a colon to announce a list is coming. • Example: • I have several favorite things about Christmas snow food and egg nog • My favorite things about Christmas are snow food and egg nog! • *Note* Do not use a colon in the second example. We don’t use one here because the clause before the list, “My favorite things about Christmas are...” if not an independent clause.

  5. Colons - Explanations • Colons can be used to set off an explanation. • Example: • There is just one thing I want for Christmas: snow. • “snow” explains what it is I want for Christmas.

  6. Colons - Time • When we read a digital clock, there is a very important task the colon does: separating the hour from the minute. • Example: • I will wait until 12 01 for Santa to come down the chimney, and then I am going to bed.

  7. Colon Examples – Add colons where needed • You need to following ingredients to make cookies flour, sugar, eggs, baking powder, chocolate chips. • You need flour, sugar, eggs, baking powder, and chocolate chips to make cookies. • My sister and I wake up at 6 00 am to open presents. • There is one really good thing about Christmas being with friends and family. • The best thing about Christmas is being with friends and family.

  8. Semi-Colons • Don’t be fooled. A Semi-Colon is not just half of a colon. That would be a period! Hahaha... • This is a semi-colon: • Semi-colons perform two important tasks: listing and joining.

  9. Semi-Colons – Breaking up monster lists • Semi-colons may look complicated in a sentence, but in fact they make sentences easier to understand. • Example: • My cousins Vicky the tall and bossy one from Washington D. C. Jerry who is a doctor from Fort Wayne Indiana and Madison who likes egg nog way too much from Vancouver Canada are all coming to my house for Christmas dinner. • How can we make this list easier to understand??? • We put in commas where they belong, then we separate the elements. Each cousin and his or her attributes are one element. Let’s see if we can separate them.

  10. Semi-Colons – Joining Independent Clauses • Do you remember how we use commas to join independent clauses? • You have to use a conjunction to help it out! • Semi-colon are stronger than commas. They don’t need a conjunction to help join the two clauses. • Example: • Tommy wrote a letter to Santa his sister Joan put it in the mail. • We use a semi-colon to link the two independent clauses together.

  11. Semi-Colons – Add semi-colons (and commas) where needed • The trees were brightly lit with red green and white lights. • The trees were brightly lit with beautiful blazing gorgeous red lights glittering dazzling green lights and wistful wonderful white lights. • Ray likes LED blue lights on the house I like classic white lights instead. • Ray likes LED blue lights on the house and I like classic white lights instead.

  12. Quotation Marks • We all use quotation marks in writing class when writing discussions between characters. This is called dialogue. See if you can determine how quotation marks are used in dialogue with Tim and Moby.

  13. Quotation Marks - Dialogue • The most common way you will see quotation marks used is in dialogue, or a conversation between characters. • Example: • “I want an Official Red Ryder Carbine-Action Two-Hundred-Shot Range Model Air Rifle!”Ralphie exclaimed. • Santa replied, “You’ll shoot your eye out, kid!” • Let’s see if we can write the dialogue from this scene of the movie using quotation marks.

  14. “I want a...”

  15. Our Dialogue

  16. Other ways to use Quotation Marks • We can also use quotation marks when we are writing research papers. • It is alright to use someone’s direct words if we give credit to that person in our writing. • Example: • According to Mr. Cassady, “The number of students who enjoy winter vacation has declined because they miss their teachers so much that they cannot enjoy their time away from school.” • We give credit to the person who stated this information and we use quotation marks to set off the direct quote.

  17. Add quotation marks (and commas) where needed • Ms. Dilsaver said I can’t believe Christmas is almost here! • We will miss you so much! the students exclaimed. • In fact they added we’re not sure if we can really enjoy the holiday without you. • I know shouted Cody why don’t we just stay in school for those two weeks! That way we won’t have to miss you so much. • The children all nodded in agreement.

  18. Apostrophes • Apostrophes come in handy in a couple of ways in sentences. • Most commonly, students mix them up with commas. Please remember that commas are on the bottom, and apostrophes are on the top!

  19. Apostrophes • There are two ways we use apostrophes: to make possessives and to make contractions. • We will talk about possessives first. • This should be a review, since we have already discussed apostrophes this year.

  20. Possessive Examples • We use an apostrophe with a singular noun to make it possessive by adding an ‘s. • The tree lights were very pretty. • What if I had a plural noun that I was trying to make possessive? • The trees lights were very pretty. • I add an apostrophe after the already existing s on the plural noun. • Think about how it would sound if we added an ‘s.

  21. Possessive Examples • We also need to think about people whose names end in s. How would it sound if we added an ‘s? • The Thomas Ugly Christmas Sweater Party was really fun. • There are two ways we could make this. What two ways are there? • Both are actually correct, and you may do it however your prefer.

  22. Apostrophes • The second way we use apostrophes is to make a contraction. • A contraction is where we take two words and combine them, but leave a few letters out. • The apostrophe stands in the place of the missing letters.

  23. Contraction Examples • Which words in these sentences could I combine to make contractions? • It is a beautiful day for a sleigh ride. • I would not eat the old popcorn garland if I were you. • We could have gone sledding, but it is not snowing today.

  24. Contraction Examples • A less common kind of contraction in writing (more prevalent in speaking) is combining the subject and predicate into a contraction. • Example: • She’s really obsessed with Christmas. • Which two words have I combined to make a contraction?

  25. Contraction Example • Which two words could I combine here to make a contraction? • I’m really excited about watching A Christmas Story! • This kind of contraction is most common in speech. Try to leave contractions like this out of your writing. It always sounds better when you write it out.

  26. Not for Plurals! • Notice none of the uses of apostrophes said anything about making a noun plural. • We do not use apostrophes to do this!

  27. Add apostrophes where needed. • The houses decorations were over the top in the neighborhood. • Did you see the lights that were programmed to go with Gangnam Style? • My mothers dog danced along with the song. Its so much fun to watch him do the horse dance. • Shes a terrible dancer. Her dogs way better at it than her.