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Punctuation

Punctuation

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Punctuation

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  1. Punctuation Chapter 26

  2. End Marks Periods - Use a period to end a declarative sentence, an imperative sentence, and an indirect question. Use a period to end most abbreviations.

  3. Declarative Sentence – a statement punctuated with a period - Theodore Roosevelt was president of the United States. Imperative Sentence – a statement that gives an order or a direction and ends with either a period or an exclamation mark - Drive straight ahead.

  4. Indirect Question – restates a question in a declarative sentence - I asked where we were going. Abbreviations – Use a period to end most abbreviations. When a sentence ends with an abbreviation that makes use of a period, it is not necessary to put a second period at the end. - Mr. Rd. Tenn. Mt. Dr. St. Gen.

  5. Using the Period The following sentences do not have periods. Add periods where they are needed. If the sentence is correct, state the sentence is correct. • A V Humboldt helped to develop geography as a science - A.V. Humboldt helped to develop geography as a science.

  6. Today, one wonders how geographers categorize deserts • Today, one wonders how geographers categorize deserts. • He asked how deserts form. • correct

  7. During their cross-country drive, Mr and Mrs Lynch stopped in St Louis, MO, as they drove west • During their cross-country drive, Mr. and Mrs. Lynch stopped in St. Louis, MO., as they drove west. • They also drove through the Mojave Desert in California. • correct

  8. Question Mark Use a question mark to end an interrogative sentence. Use a question mark to end an incomplete question in which the rest of the question is understood. Use a question mark to end a statement that is intended as a question.

  9. Interrogative Sentence – a sentence that is punctuated with a question mark • Who are you? • Was there a valid reason for her absence? Do not confuse an interrogative sentence, which is a direct question, with an indirect question. An indirect question requires no answer and should end with a period.

  10. Incomplete Question – Sometimes a single word or phrase is used to ask a question. Use a question mark to end an incomplete question in which the rest of the question is understood. - Certainly, we should have lunch. Where? - Of course, I will meet you. Where?

  11. Statement Intended as a Question – A question that shows surprise is sometimes phrased as a declarative sentence. Use a question mark to indicate that the sentence is a question. • We are early? • There is no electricity?

  12. Supplying Question Marks and Periods Each of the following sentences is either a direct question, on indirect question, or a statement intended as a question. Add the correct end marks to each of the following questions. • How are the deserts formed - How are the deserts formed?

  13. I just had to ask why deserts are hot and dry • I just had to ask why deserts are hot and dry. • Don’t deserts form in areas of high atmospheric pressure • Don’t deserts form in areas of high atmospheric pressure?

  14. Deserts are formed because of large-scale climatic patterns • Deserts are formed because of large-scale climatic patterns. • Why might deserts form behind mountain ranges • Why might deserts form behind mountain ranges?

  15. Mountain ranges create a rain shadow effect Where did you learn that • Mountain ranges create a rain shadow effect. Where did you learn that?

  16. Exclamation Mark Use an exclamation mark to end an exclamatory sentence or an imperative sentence if the command is urgent and forceful. Use an exclamation mark after an interjection expressing strong emotion.

  17. Exclamatory Sentence – a statement showing strong emotion - That was a wonderful trip! Imperative Sentence – a statement that gives an order or a direction and ends with either a period or an exclamation mark. Use an exclamation mark after an imperative sentence if the command is urgent and forceful. - Be quiet!

  18. Interjection– a word or a phrase that expresses feeling or emotion and functions independently of a sentence • Wow! This is fun. • Oh! You’ve ruined the surprise! Note About Using Exclamation Marks: Exclamation marks should not be used too often. Overusing them makes writing too emotional and less effective.

  19. Supplying Exclamation Marks to Sentences Add exclamation marks as needed. Then, label each item an exclamatory sentence (exc), Imperative Sentence (imp), Interjection (int), or Declarative (dec) • I hate being lost in a desert - I hate being lost in a desert!;exc

  20. I want water • I want water!;exc • Yippee It’s going to rain • Yippee! It’s going to rain!; int, exc • Oh no It’s a flash flood • Oh no! It’s a flash flood!; int, exc

  21. Get to high water • Get to high water!;imp • Hurry The water is rising quickly • Hurry! The water is rising quickly.; int, dec • Oh no It’s a flash flood • Oh no! It’s a flash flood!; int, exc

  22. Supplying End Marks Add the correct end marks to each sentence. • How would you describe a desert • How would you describe a desert? • Hot Very hot • Hot! Very hot!

  23. Are you sure of your answer • Are you sure of your answer? • Were you aware that not all regions defined as deserts are in warm climates • Were you aware that not all regions defined as deserts are in warm climates?

  24. Imagine Deserts can be found in some regions of the North and South pole • Imagine! Deserts can be found in some regions of the North and South pole. • They are called deserts because moisture freezes and plant life cannot grow • They are called deserts because moisture freezes and plant life cannot grow.

  25. I must ask whether you would like to learn more about these frozen deserts • I must ask whether you would like to learn more about these frozen deserts. • Well, use library resources to answer all your questions • Well, use library resources to answer all your questions.

  26. Good luck • Good luck! • Tom wondered where he could find books • Tome wondered where he could find books.

  27. Commas with Compound Sentences A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses that are joined by a coordinating conjunction, such as and, but, for, nor, or, so, or yet. - The Thar Desert has little rain or vegetation, and the herders must collect the leaves from the tops of trees for their flocks.

  28. Use a comma before a conjunction only when there are complete sentences on both sides of the conjunction. If the conjunction joins single words, phrases, or subordinate clauses, do not use a comma. Single Words: Heat and sand are common desert features. Phrases: Deserts are found north and south of the equator. Subordinate Clauses: They have decided that you should study more and that you should watch less television.

  29. Using Commas with Compound Sentences Commas have been left out of the following compound sentences. Read each sentence and add commas where they are needed. • The Thar Desert spans India and Pakistan and it is one of the world’s harshest areas. • The Thar Desert spans India and Pakistan, and it is one of the world’s harshest areas.

  30. However, a rich desert culture and colorful people can be found in the Thar. • correct • You can take a bus tour or you can join a camel safari. • You can take a bus tour, or you can join a camel safari.

  31. You’ll have a great time visiting the villages and exploring the markets. • correct • You won’t be disappointed nor will you ever forget your visit. • You won’t be disappointed, nor will you ever forget your visit.

  32. Using Commas Between Items in a Series Use commas to separate three or more words, phrases, or clauses in a series. Series of Words: The desert animals included camels, toads, gerbils, and insects. Series of Phrases: The treasure map directed them over the dunes, into the oasis, and past the palm tree. Series of Clauses: The house was rather quiet before she arrived, before her luggage was piled up in the hall, and before her three poodles took over.

  33. Exception 1: When each item is joined to the next by a conjunction, no commas are necessary. • For this journey, you will need two camels and a guide and a canteen. • Exception 2: No commas are necessary when words that are considered to be one item. • Every table in the diner was set with a knife and fork, a cup and saucer, and salt and pepper.

  34. Using Commas Between Items in a Series In each of the following sentences, add commas as needed. State correct if no comma is needed. • The surface of a desert may be covered with sand gravel or polished stones. • The surface of a desert may be covered with sand, gravel, or polished stones.

  35. An oasis is a place where ground water pools plant growth flourishes and animals begin to feed. • An oasis is a place where ground water pools, plant growth flourishes, and animals begin to feed. • The location of deserts is determined by ocean currents the location of mountains and prevailing wind patterns. • The location of deserts is determined by ocean currents, the location of mountains, and prevailing wind patterns.

  36. Most deserts are located near and between the Tropic of Cancer the equator and the Tropic of Capricorn. • Most deserts are located near and between the Tropic of Cancer, the equator, and the Tropic of Capricorn. • The Gobi and the Takia Makan and Kyzyl Kum are some Asian deserts.. • correct

  37. Using Commas Between Adjectives Use commas to separate adjectives of equal rank. Do not use commas to separate adjectives that must stay in a specific order. With Commas: He drove a shiny, green sedan. Without Commas: The attic was filled with many old clothes.

  38. Note About Commas With Adjectives: Never use a comma to separate the last adjective in a series from the noun it modifies. Incorrect: A large, gentle-looking, camel sat by the road. Correct: A large, gentle-looking camel sat by the road.

  39. Commas Between Adjectives In each of the following sentences, two adjectives have been underlined. Add commas between the two adjectives only where necessary. State correct if no comma is needed. • The long dry stretches of sand were mesmerizing. • The long, dry stretches of sand were mesmerizing.

  40. Two small goats were grazing. • correct • A large threatening vulture circled overhead. • A large, threatening vulture circled overhead. • The white fluffy clouds were an illusion. • The white, fluffy clouds were an illusion.

  41. Commas After Introductory Material Use a comma after an introductory word, phrase, or clause Introductory Word:Yes, Jim is our best debater. Introductory Phrase:With very little money, she left home for the big city. Introductory Clause:After he finished school, Dick joined the Army.

  42. Commas After Introductory Material Add commas as needed to set off the introductory material in each of the following sentences. • Fearsome looking the desert tarantula is three inches long. • Fearsome looking, the desert tarantula is three inches long.

  43. Shrinking back you might think it will jump and bite you. • Shrinking back, you might think it will jump and bite you. • However they can jump only a few inches. • However, they can jump only a few inches.

  44. For the most part they are harmless creatures. • For the most, part they are harmless creatures. • Even if you are bitten the venom is not fatal. • Even if you are bitten, the venom is not fatal.

  45. Commas with Parenthetical Expressions Use commas to set off parenthetical expressions. (A parenthetical expression is a word or phrase that is not essential to the meaning of the sentence.) Names of People Being Addressed:That’s the right answer, Doug. Certain Adverbs: We chose, therefore, not to go. Common Expressions:This solution, I think, is the best. Contrasting Expressions:The river is long, not deep.

  46. A parenthetical expression at the end of a sentence needs only one comma. The decision should be min, not ours.

  47. Commas with Parenthetical Expressions Add commas as needed to set off the parenthetical expressions in each of the following sentences. • The position of Earth’s deserts is explainable not accidental. • The position of Earth’s deserts is explainable, not accidental.

  48. Without a doubt Jason Earth’s tilt on its axis contributes to the desert climates. • Without a doubt, Jason, Earth’s tilt on its axis contributes to the desert climates. • Different areas of Earth as we know are angled toward the sun at specific times each year. • Different areas of Earth, as we know, are angled toward the sun at specific times each year.

  49. The sun same areas of course do not receive as much sunlight at other times. • The sun same areas, of course, do not receive as much sunlight at other times. • This tilt of Earth therefore causes the four seasons. • This tilt of Earth, therefore, causes the four seasons.

  50. Commas That Set Off Nonessential Expressions To determine when a phrase or clause should be set off with commas, decide whether the phrase or clause is essential or nonessential to the meaning of the sentence.