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Integumentary System

Integumentary System

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Integumentary System

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  1. Integumentary System CHAPTER 5

  2. Integumentary System • Skin • Integument or cutaneous membrane • Epidermis • Dermis • Subcutaneous layer • Accessory structures • Hair • Nails • Glands

  3. Layers and Structures of the Skin

  4. Skin Lesions • Abrasion • Scraping or rubbing away of skin or mucous membrane as a result of friction to the area • Example: carpet burn • Abscess • Localized collection of pus in any body part that results from invasion of pus-forming bacteria • Example: pustule = small abscess

  5. Skin Lesions • Bedsore • Ulcer in skin over a bony prominence • Also known as pressure ulcer • Example: decubitus ulcer • Blister • Small, thin-walled lesion containing clear fluid • Also known as a vesicle

  6. Skin Lesions • Bulla • Large blister • Carbuncle • Circumscribed inflammation of skin and deeper tissues; contains pus • Comedo • Typical lesion of acne vulgaris • Example: whitehead = closed comedo • Example: blackhead = open comedo

  7. Skin Lesions • Cyst • Closed sac or pouch in or within the skin; contains fluid, semifluid, or solid material • Example: hydrocele = fluid-filled cyst • Example: sebaceous cyst = solid-filled cyst

  8. Skin Lesions • Fissure • Cracklike sore or groove in the skin or mucous membrane • Example: anal fissure • Fistula • Abnormal passageway between two tubular organs; or from an organ to the body surface • Example: recto-vaginal fistula

  9. Skin Lesions • Hives • Circumscribed, slightly elevated lesions on skin; paler in center than surrounding edges • Also called wheals • Example: mosquito bite • Laceration • Tear in skin; torn, jagged wound

  10. Skin Lesions • Macule • Small flat, discoloration of the skin; neither raised nor depressed • Example: bruises, freckles • Nodule • Small, circumscribed swelling protruding above the skin

  11. Skin Lesions • Papule • Small, solid, circumscribed elevation on the skin • Example: pimple, wart, elevated mole • Polyp • Small, stalklike growth, protruding upward or outward from membrane surface • Example: nasal polyp

  12. Skin Lesions • Pustule • Small elevation of skin filled with pus • Example: small abscess on the skin • Scales • Thin flakes of hardened epithelium that are shed from the epidermis • Ulcer • Circumscribed, open sore or lesion of skin, accompanied by inflammation • Example: decubitus ulcer

  13. Skin Lesions • Vesicle • Small, thin-walled, lesion containing clear fluid • Example: blister • Wheal • Circumscribed, slightly elevated lesion of the skin • Paler in center than surrounding edges • Example: hives

  14. PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS Integumentary System

  15. Acne Vulgaris • Pronounced • (ACK-nee-vul-GAY-ris) • Defined • Common inflammatory disorder seen on face, chest, back, and neck • Appears as papules, pustules, and comedos

  16. Albinism • Pronounced • (AL-bin-izm) • Defined • Condition characterized by absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes

  17. Burns • Defined • Tissue injury produced by flame, heat, chemicals, radiation, electricity, or gases • Extent of damage determined by: • Mode and duration of exposure • Thermal intensity or temperature • Anatomic site of the burn

  18. Burns • First-degree or superficial burns • Example: sunburn • Second-degree or partial-thickness burns • Example: flash contact with hot objects • Third-degree or full-thickness burns • Example: deep burns from a fire

  19. Callus • Pronounced • (CAL-us) • Defined • Common, usually painless thickening of the epidermis at sites of external pressure or friction, such as weight-bearing areas of the feet and on the palmar surface of the hands • Also known as a callosity

  20. Carcinoma, Basal Cell • Pronounced • (car-sih-NOH-mah BAY-sal sell) • Defined • Most common malignant tumor of epithelial tissue, occurring most often on areas of skin that are exposed to the sun • Presents as a slightly elevated nodule with a depression or ulceration in the center that becomes more obvious as the tumor grows

  21. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell • Pronounced • (car-sih-NOH-mah SKWAY-mus sell ) • Defined • Malignancy of the squamous, or scalelike, cells of the epithelial tissue • Much faster growing than basal cell carcinoma • Greater potential for metastasis if not treated

  22. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell • Frequent sites on sun-exposed areas • Top of nose • Forehead • Margin of external ear • Back of hands • Lower lip

  23. Dermatitis • Pronounced • (der-mah-TYE-tis) • Defined • Inflammation of skin, seen in several different forms • Acute or chronic • Contact or seborrheic

  24. Eczema • Pronounced • (EK-zeh-mah) • Defined • Acute or chronic inflammatory skin condition characterized by erythema, papules, vesicles, pustules, scales, crusts, scabs, and itching

  25. Exanthematous Viral Diseases • Pronounced • (eks-an-THEM-ah-tus viral diseases) • Defined • Skin eruption or rash accompanied by inflammation, having specific diagnostic features of an infectious viral disease

  26. Exanthematous Viral Diseases • Examples: • Rubella= German Measles= 3 day measles • Roseola Infantum • Rubeola= Red Measles= 7-10 day measles • Erythema Infectiosum= Fifth disease

  27. Gangrene • Pronounced • (GANG-green) • Defined • Tissue death due to loss of adequate blood supply, invasion of bacteria, subsequent decay with foul odor

  28. Herpes Zoster • Pronounced • (HER-peez ZOS-ter) • Defined • Acute viral infection, characterized by painful, vesicular eruptions on the skin that follow along nerve pathways of underlying spinal or cranial nerves • Highest incidence in adults over 50

  29. Herpes Zoster Image courtesy of Robert A. Silverman, M.D., Pediatric Dermatology, Georgetown University

  30. Impetigo • Pronounced • (Im-peh-TYE-goh) • Defined • Contagious superficial skin infection characterized by serous vesicles and pustules filled with millions of staphylococcus or streptococcus bacteria • Usually forming on the face

  31. Kaposi’s Sarcoma • Pronounced • (CAP-oh-seez sar-KOH-ma) • Defined • Rare malignant lesions beginning as soft purple-brown nodules or plaques on the feet • Gradually spreads throughout skin • Increased incidence in men with AIDS

  32. Keloid • Pronounced • (KEE-loyd) • Defined • Enlarged, irregularly shaped, elevated scar that forms due to the presence of large amounts of collagen during formation of a scar

  33. Keratosis • Pronounced • (kair-ah-TOH-sis) • Defined • Skin condition in which there is a thickening and overgrowth of the cornified epithelium

  34. Seborrheic Keratosis • Pronounced • (seb-oh-REE-ik kair-ah-TOH-sis) • Defined • Brown or waxy yellow wart-like lesions that are loosely attached to the skin • Also known as senile warts

  35. Actinic Keratosis • Pronounced • (ak-TIN-ic kair-ah-TOH-sis) • Defined • Premalignant, gray or red-to-brown, hardened lesion caused by excessive exposure to sunlight • Also known as solar keratosis

  36. Leukoplakia • Pronounced • (loo-koh-PLAY-kee-ah) • Defined • White, hard, thickened patches firmly attached to the mucous membrane • In mouth, vulva, or penis

  37. Malignant Melanoma • Pronounced • (mah-LIG-nant mel-ah-NOH-mah) • Defined • Malignant skin tumor originating from melanocytes in preexisting nevi, freckles, or skin with pigment • Darkly pigmented tumor with irregular surfaces and borders; variable colors

  38. ABCDs of Malignant Melanomas • Asymmetry • Borders • Color • Diameter

  39. Nevus • Pronounced • (NEV-us) • Defined • Visual accumulation of melanocytes, creating a flat or raised rounded macule or papule with definite borders • Commonly known as a mole

  40. Onychocryptosis • Pronounced • (on-ih-koh-krip-TOH-sis) • Defined • Ingrown nail • Most commonly involves the large toe

  41. Onychomycosis • Pronounced • (on-ih-koh-my-KOH-sis) • Defined • Fungal infection of the nails

  42. Pediculosis • Pronounced • (pee-dik-you-LOH-sis) • Defined • Highly contagious parasitic infestation caused by blood-sucking lice

  43. Pediculosis • Pediculosis capitis • Head • Pediculosis corporis • Body • Pediculosis palpebrarum • Eyelashes and eyelids • Pediculosis pubis • Pubic hair

  44. Pemphigus • Pronounced • (PEM-fih-gus) • Defined • Rare, incurable disorder manifested by blisters in the mouth and on the skin • Spreads to involve large areas of the body

  45. Pilonidal Cyst • Pronounced • (pye-loh-NYE-dal SIST) • Defined • Closed sac located in the sacrococcygeal area of the back • Sometimes noted at birth as a dimple

  46. Psoriasis • Pronounced • (soh-RYE-ah-sis) • Defined • Common, noninfectious, chronic skin disorder manifested by silvery-white scales over round, raised, reddened plaques producing itching • Pruritus

  47. Rosacea • Pronounced • (roh-ZAY-she-ah) • Defined • Chronic inflammatory skin disease that mainly affects the skin of the middle third of the face • Characterized by persistent redness over the areas of the face, nose, and cheeks

  48. Scabies • Pronounced • (SKAY-beez) • Defined • Highly contagious parasitic infestation caused by the “human itch mite” • Resulting in a rash, pruritus, and a feeling in the skin of “something crawling”

  49. Scleroderma • Pronounced • (sklair-ah-DER-mah) • Defined • Gradual thickening of the dermis and swelling of the hands and feet to a state in which the skin is anchored to the underlying tissue

  50. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus • Pronounced • (sis-TEM-ic LOO-pus air-ih-them-ah-TOH-sis) • Defined • Chronic, multi-system, inflammatory disease characterized by lesions of the nervous system and skin, renal problems, and vasculitis • Characteristic “Butterfly rash” is often seen on nose and face