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Motivational Theories: An Overview

Motivational Theories: An Overview

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Motivational Theories: An Overview

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  1. Motivational Theories: An Overview Developed by Dr. Randy Richards, Ph.D. St. Ambrose University

  2. Three Factors to Job Performance • Opportunity to Perform (Organization) • Capacity to Perform (KSA’s) • Willingness to Perform (Motivation) • Direction • Intensity • Persistence

  3. Content Theories Maslow’s Hiearchy of Needs Alderfer’s E.R.G. Model of Needs Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory McClelland’s Learned Needs Process Theories Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Equity Theory Goal Setting Theory Operant Conditioning Theory Two Main Theoretical Categories

  4. Maslow’s Hiearchy of Needs • A satisfied need ceases to motivate • Unsatisfied needs cause conflict • People want to move up the pyramid • Higher level needs can be satisfied in a variety of ways Self-actualize Esteem Social Security Physiological

  5. Alderfer’s: E.R.G. Model of Needs • Similar to Maslow • Regression to lower level if needs are not satisfied at the next level Growth Needs Relatedness Needs Existence needs

  6. Hygenic Factors Job Context - extrinisic compensation security working conditions policies/procedures quality of supervision quality of working relationships Motivational Factors Job Content - intrinsic the work itself growth potential responsibility achievement recognition control over work ownership Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory High Low High Low Dissatisfaction Satisfaction

  7. Achievement Need for challenging work, responsibility, goal success, feedback and long term involvement Affiliation Need for social interaction, close personal relationships Power Gaining and exercising power and authority Needs are learned Cultivated at work Measured by Thematic Apperception Test McClelland’s Learned Needs

  8. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory + / - Effort Performance Outcomes Expectancy: If I try hard can I perform well? Instrumentality: If I perform well, will I be rewarded? Valence: Do I value the reward? This is a form of behavioral (S R) theory. Performance is related to reward expectations and external motivational factors.

  9. Equity Theory • People compare rewards and efforts. • Motivation is affected by those perceptions. • Adjusted for fairness

  10. Proven effective Need for a purpose Most positive effect on performance when: Goals are specific (degree of qualitative precision) Goals are challenging (level of difficulty) Knowledge of results is shared Involve others to help Why this works: Directs attention and action Mobilizes energy and effort Stimulates effective strategic thinking Prolongs effort over time Goal Setting

  11. Looking at 3 factors: A situation (S) that elicits a response. The response itself (R) The reinforcing consequences (C) S > R > C To influence behavior you must control consequences Four ways to control consequences: Strengthen Desired Positive reinforcement (add reward) Avoidance learning (subtract noxious) Weaken Undesirable Extinction (subtract reward) Punishment (add noxious) Consequence Management (Operant Conditioning)