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Milk and Dairy Products

Milk and Dairy Products

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Milk and Dairy Products

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  1. Milk and Dairy Products Nutrition and Foods Sara Bilbrey

  2. What is Milk? • 87.7% water • 4.9% lactose(carbohydrate • 3.4% fat (whole milk) • 3.3% protein • 0.7 % minerals • What is the key mineral in milk? • What is milk fortified with to aid in the absorption of that key mineral?

  3. Milk: the perfect food? • Protein to build and repair cells • Carbohydrates for energy • Fats for energy , warmth and carries fat soluble vitamins; • Vitamins A , D, and B2 • Minerals – calcium, phosphorus

  4. Grades of MILK The grade tells us the milk is safe and wholesome. • The grade of milk depends upon several things one being the condition of the milk barn: • wooden barn for milking cows=Grade B • concrete barn for milking cows=Grade A • A B C • Grade A sold in stores

  5. Types of Milk • Pasteurized- all milk purchased in the store has been pasteurized or heat treated to0 kill harmful bacteria. • Thank you doctor • Louis Pasteur world renowned French chemist and microbiologist.

  6. Homogenized milk • Homogenized Milk- milk that has been pasteurized and mechanically treated to breakup butterfat and distribute them evenly. If milk was not homogenized the fat solids would float to the top and separate like oil and water.

  7. Aseptic Milk aka UHT • Ultra High Temperature which means it was pasteurized at a higher temperature and is shelf stable at room temperature in an aseptic container.

  8. Raw Milk • Raw Milk-straight from the cow, goat, camel, etc. It has not be pasteurized, more danger of bacteria. Food borne illnesses from Raw milk: Salmonella E. coli Listeria

  9. Amounts of Fat in MILK • Whole milk: 3.4 % depending upon the breed of cow • 2% milk: has less fat, 2% fat • 1% milk- has less fat, 1 % fat • Skim milk- has only a trace to no fat • Fat in dairy products is saturated and is harmful to the heart. Dietary guidelines for Americans and myplate.gov recommend we choosing fat free or low fat dairy foods.

  10. Buttermilk • Buttermilk-. The slightly sour liquid left after butter has been churned, and cultures (good bacteria) are added. Buttermilk is used in baking or consumed as a drink. Butter varies in amount of fat content; can be whole or reduced fat.

  11. Evaporated milk • Evaporated milk –milk with 60% of the water removed aka dehydrated milk. Shelf stable and is canned, available in whole, low-fat or fat free. • Used in many recipes

  12. Sweetened Condensed Milk • Sweetened condensed milk - similar to evaporated milk in that 60% of the water has been removed, however; sweetened condensed milk is sweet! Often used and recipes • Be sure not to confuse evaporated with sweetened condensed.

  13. Chocolate or Flavored • Chocolate or flavored milk has simply had chocolate or other flavors added to it like strawberry or banana. Varies in fat content so read labels.

  14. Kefir • Kefir- fermented milk that has a sour taste, similar to yogurt, common in the Middle East, made using Camel’s milk. In the US kefir is made from cow’s milk.

  15. Non Fat Dry Powdered Milk • Non-fat dry powdered milk -all of the water and fat removed, it is shelf stable and used to save money and in recipes. When water it is rehydrated it can be used like milk but must be refrigerated.

  16. Acidophilus Milk • Acidophilus milk has Lactobacillus acidophilus added to it to aid digestion.

  17. Other types of dairy products • Cream-the fat of milk • Half and half • Light • Light whipping cream • Heavy whipping cream • Sour cream

  18. Other types cont. • Butter – contains 80 milk fat • Yogurt-has good bacteria added to it, aids in digestion, has a tangy flavor and is a more concentrated source of nutrients than milk. Read label for sugar and fat contents.

  19. Other types cont. • Frozen dairy desserts: • Ice Cream-at least 10% fat • Frozen Yogurt-freezing kills good bacteria in yogurt • Sherbet-less fat but more sugar than ice cream • Sorbet- French word for sherbet, does not contain milk

  20. How cheese is made • Cheese is a concentrated form of milk • When rennin (an enzyme) is added to milk, the milk thickens and separates and becomes curds and whey. • Curds- solid clusters • Whey-bluish liquid drained from curds. What was she eating?

  21. Types of Cheese Fresh Cheese Ripened Cheese • Cottage cheese • Farmer’s cheese • Cream cheese • Ricotta • See page 505 • Firm • Semisoft • Soft • Blue-veined • See page 506-507 pictures and examples

  22. Buying Milk When shopping always look for: • Name or type of milk • Pasteurized • Homogenized • “Sell by date”-milk good for another 3+ days

  23. Storing Milk • Make sure milk and milk products stay cool and are quickly and promptly stored. Refrigerator or freezer. • Opaque (not clear)container is best, i.e. yellow jug or a paper carton. This prevents milk from spoiling and a loss in nutrients.

  24. Cooking with milk and dairy • The protein in milk is fragile or delicate so milk will burn or scorch at high heat, sugar (lactose) in milk also increases the likelihood of burning. • When cooking with milk or dairy products always remember to use: • low temperatures and • stir constantly

  25. Cooking continued . . . • When cooking with milk or other fragile protein foods, i.e. chocolate, eggs, etc. for best results use a double boiler. This prevent burning or scorching of the fragile protein foods. Or you could use a “makeshift” out of the pans you already have.

  26. Ways to stretch the Food $ • larger container • pick up from store – no home deliveries • use evaporated in cooking • mix dry milk with regular milk Gallon of milk typically cost $3.50 to $4.50 ½ gallon of milk typically costs $2.50+ Do the math

  27. Ways to reduce fat from dairy • Use low fat dairy products • Use yogurt in place of mayonnaise • Use yogurt in place of sour cream • Use low-fat cottage cheese instead of sour cream in dips

  28. The End • Now we are going to make some butter • Here is how they did it in the old days Churn Butter molds