Milk and Milk Products Got Milk?
Milk - Is it in You? • The serving size from the milk and dairy food group is 2-3 CUPS. • 3 cups for teens and adults • The following groups should have more servings. • Pregnant and Lactating women • Children • Youth / Teens
Milk and Dairy Serving Sizes • 1 cup (8oz) milk or yogurt • 1 ½ oz natural cheese • 4 dice stacked • 2 nine volt batteries • ½ cup cottage cheese • 2 oz processed cheese • (velveeta, cheese whiz, american) • ½ c ice cream • Tennis ball
MILK NUTRIENTS • Milk is our most nearly perfect food. • No other single food can substitute for milk in diet and give a person the same nutrients that you get from a glass of milk. • Milk, yogurt, and cheese are a good source of a COMPLETE protein. • Milk also supplies carbohydrates and fats
More on Milk Nutrients • Milk is fortified with the following vitamins: • Vitamin A – prevents night blindness • (B2) Riboflavin – growth promoting and eye function • Vitamin D – which you also get from the sun • Milk Products provide the following minerals: • A. Phosphorus • B. Iron • C. Calcium ***
C. Calcium *** • Critical for strong bones and teeth • 1 QT milk contains 1200mg of calcium – amount a teen needs each day. • When you don’t get enough calcium, your body steals it from the calcium reserves in your bones. • Around age 21 your body starts using the stored calcium, not storing it. • Drink Milk not Soda Pop so your body has more calcium reserves. • Prevents Osteoporosis – “Brittle Bones”
Osteoporosis. Osteo= Bone porosis = porous A disease that comes from lack of calcium. It can cause the skeleton to shrink and the bones to break very easily.
WITH MILK – STAY FIT • Milk products are essential for growing and maintaining: • Strong, healthy bones • Strong teeth • Milk and dairy foods, along with WEIGHT BEARINGEXERCISEare essential for maintaining bone density.
Milk is very good for you , but some products can contain a lot of fat. • Discretionary Calories – extra calories leftover after your total calorie allotment.
Reduce the fat in recipes by using a lower fat content milk such as: • Skim or 1% low-fat milk products • Instead of whole or 2% milk • Low fat cottage cheese • Nonfat yogurt • be careful of added sugar • Substitute yogurt for mayonnaise • Reduce fat by using less cheese in a sharper flavor.
Eat sometimes 2% or regular cottage cheese Reduced-fat or part-skim cheeses 2% low-fat milk, yogurt Ice milk (extra sugar) Frozen nonfat or low-fat yogurt (extra sugar)
Eat less often Whole milk cheeses Processed cheeses Whole milk Flavored milk (chocolate,strawberry,eggnog) Whole milk yogurt Ice cream
You may be surprised to know that there is no milk/dairy in softie ‘ice cream’read the ingredients on the label
Milk Processing Terms • Homogenization • Fat particles have been broken down and distributed so the milk won’t separate. • Pasteurization • Heat treated to remove/kill harmful organisms-161 F for 15 seconds. • UHT (Ultra-high temperature) • Pasteurized at much higher temperatures than usual so it is shelf-stable (Yahoo drinks in paper carton) • FORTIFIED (Milk is fortified with vitamins A and D) • Adding in one or more vitamins, minerals, or proteins not naturally present in the food. • COAGULATE • When a protein gets solid. (cheese, curds, egg…)
TYPES OF MILK I. Lactose reduced or Lactose free J. Buttermilk (culture added) • K. Evaporated (60% water removed) L. Acidophilus milk (digestion aid) • Whole Milk (no butterfat removed) • 2% (reduced fat) • 1% (low fat) • Skim (non fat) • Non-Fat dry (both fat and water removed) F. Flavored milk (chocolate, strawberry…) G. Sweetened condensed milk (50% water removed and sugar added) H. Eggnog(Mixture of milk, eggs, sugar and cream and flavorings)
Milk Products • Cream • Butter • Yogurt • Frozen dairy desserts • Cheeses
Selecting and Storing • Consider: • Fat amounts • Container size ($) • Ingredients • Tightly sealed and never opened • Sell By date • Product will last about a week after this date. • Refrigerate promptly • Store in original container • Keep container tightly closed so it does not absorb aromas • Discard any milk left out longer than 2 hours • Store away from light (destroys riboflavin)
When cooking milk, 4 undesirable results can happen: 1. CURDLING • Lumps from coagulated proteins. Generally from adding an acid. (lost valuable proteins) • Cook at a low temperature • Use fresh milk instead of sour milk (buttermilk) • Thicken the milk with a starch (flour) before combining. (white sauce) 2. Film or Scum • Solid layer that forms on the surface of milk during heating. • Use a covered container • Stir during heating • Mix to form a layer of foam
3. BOILING OVER • Caused by pressure buildup under the scum. • Prevent the film from forming 4. SCORCHING Burning of settled milk proteins on sides and bottoms of pan. Results in color change and off-taste. (lost valuable proteins) • During heating, stir the product constantly • Scrape the bottom of the pan in a figure 8 style. • Use low heat
Cheese… • Cheese is a SOLID FOOD made from milk. • When bacteria and/or acids are added to milk, the proteins in the milk COAGULATE, or clump together to become a solid mass.
Natural Cheese - FRESH (UNRIPENED) • Highly perishable and must be kept refrigerated and served chilled. • EX: Cream cheese, feta, mozzarella, ricotta
Natural Cheese - Ripened • Cheddar and other Ripened cheese taste better when served at room temperature. • SOFT CHEESES • BelPaese, brie, boursin, camembert • SEMI-SOFT CHEESES • Fontina, gorgonzola, gouda, havarti, Roquefort • FIRM CHEESES • Cheddar, gruyere, monterey jack, provolone • HARD CHEESES • Asiago, parmigiano-reggiano (parmesan)
Processed Cheese… Pasteurized Process cheese Processed cheese food Imitation cheese
Guidelines for cooking cheese • Use a low heat • Heat it just long enough to melt it. • To speed up cooking time, grate or cut into small pieces. • When microwaving, be careful-cheese gets very hot. • Cheese can easily overcook in the microwave because of its high fat content. • When cheese gets overcooked, it becomes very tough and stringy.