Milk & Milk Products Next to water, milk is the most important liquid ingredient in the bakeshop.
Categories and Definitions • Raw Milk: directly from cow, possibly containing disease causing bacteria. • Milk is almost always pasteurized before being sold or processed into other products. • Milk and cream in foodservice primarily comes from the cow. • Milk from other animals, including goats, sheep and water buffalo is used for mostly cheeses.
Pasteurization Process By law, all grade A milk must be pasteurized. Grades B and C are used in industrial food processes and are rarely seen in foodservice or in the retail market.
Pasteurization VS. Ultra-Pasteurization Pasteurization Ultra-pasteurization or UHT • Heated to 161F and held at this temperature for 15 seconds. • Then quickly chilled • Developed by Louis Pasteur in 1864 • Heated to 275F and held for 1 to 3 seconds. • Kills nearly all bacteria that causes spoilage. • UHT milk can be kept at room temp until opened. • It has a cooked taste and is used for cooking rather than drinking.
Fresh Milk Products • Whole Milk: fresh milk from the cow, vitamin D added, contains 3 ½% fat, 88% water,8.5% nonfat milk solids. **Can not add acid directly to milk…curdling can take place. • Skim or non-fat milk: has most or all fat removed. Fat content is less than 0.5% • Low fat milk: has a fat content between 0.5%-2% • Homogenized milk: has been processed so the cream does not separate. This is done by forcing milk through tiny holes and breaks up the fat particles. Nearly all milk on the market is homogenized.
Fresh Cream Products Ultra-pasteurized cream does not whip as well as pasteurized cream. Gums are added to accomplish the whipping. Although ultra-pasteurized keeps longer. **Manufacturer’s cream is 38-40% and available only as wholesale.
Fermented Milk and Cream Products • Evaporated Milk: milk that has 60% of the water removed. Has a cooked flavor. • Condensed Milk: milk that has 60% of the water removed, but heavily sweetened with sugar. Available in cans and bulk. • Dried Whole Milk: milk that has been dried to a powder • Non-Fat Dry Milk: skim milk that has been dried • Sour Cream: cultured and fermented by added lactic acid bacteria. 18% fat • Crème Fraiche: slightly aged, cultured heavy cream, doesn’t require tempering. Expensive • Buttermilk: fresh liquid milk, usually skim soured by bacteria • Yogurt: milk cultured by special bacteria, has a custard-like consistency. Can be flavored and sweetened.
Say Cheese…….. Mascarpone is a type of Italian specialty cheese that is tangier than American cream cheese. Its used in tiramisu. Ricottaan Italian cheese that was originally made from whey that is left over from cheese making. • Two types of cheese are common in a bakeshop. • 1. Baker’s Cheese: Soft, unaged cheese with a very low fat content. Its dry and pliable. Can be kneaded like dough. • 2. Cream Cheese: Soft, unaged cheese with a higher fat content, 35%. Mainly used in cheesecakes and rich desserts.
Check This Out…… • Dried Milk: Used for convenience and low cost. In many formulas it is not necessary to reconstitute it. This does not affect the overall quality of the product. • Storage of fresh milk and cream, buttermilk and other fermented milk products, and cheese must be refrigerated at all times. • Everything else must be stored in a cool, dark place. • Opened cans will only last a week, opened and refrigerated.