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Chapter 15 Medieval Europe

Chapter 15 Medieval Europe

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Chapter 15 Medieval Europe

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  1. Chapter 15Medieval Europe

    By Jacky S.
  2. NOTES

  3. Section 1 Where on the land did the people live and why? On the coast, fishing & trade prospered What geological feature separated Britain and Ireland from the rest of Europe? The English Channel Which Germanic People settled in Italy? Ostrogoths
  4. Section 1 Name the mountains that separate Italy from central Europe. Alps Name the mountains that separate Spain from northern Europe. Pyrenees Which Germanic people settled in Spain? Visigoths
  5. Section 1 What geographical feature encouraged travel & trade and provided safety, isolation, & diverse cultures? The many rivers (including Rhine, Danube, Vistula, Volga, Seine, and Po) What Germanic Tribes settled in Britain? Angles + Saxons
  6. Section 1 What native group did the Anglo-Saxons push away and where did they go? The Celts; north and west Britain and Ireland Which Frankish King converted to Catholicism to please the Romans living in his land? King Clovis
  7. Section 1 After King Clovis, France divided into provinces. Who led them? Mayors Which Mayor worked with a the Pope to unite all Frankish nobles and defeated the Muslims in the Battle of Tours? Charles Martel
  8. Section 1 Who was Charles Martel’s son that defeated the Germanic Lombards? Pepin He donated land he won to the Pope. What was the land called? Papal States
  9. Section 1 Who was Peppin’s son that forced the Lombards and Saxons in Spain and Germany to convert to Christianity? Charles, later called Charlemagne Why was Charlemagne unhappy about the Pope crowning him as Emperor? He didn’t want the Pope to think he had power to choose the Emperor
  10. Section 1 What was Charlemagne’s capital? Aachen Who ran the courts in Charlemagne’s Empire? Counts Who watched the counts to make sure they did their duty? Inspectors
  11. Section 1 Who did Charlemagne ask to start a school? Alcuin Who was Charlemagne’s son that was weak in ruling? Louis How did Louis’s sons keep the Empire together? They divided it into 3 kingdoms
  12. Section 1 Who invaded from the South, East (*Think of Mr. G*), and Scandinavia? South: Muslims, East: Magyars, Scandinavia: Vikings What was the land like in Scandinavia? Many fjords, little farmland
  13. Section 1 What was the Viking boat called? Longboat What piece of land did the Vikings conquer? Normandy (named after them “Norsemen”)
  14. Section 1 Who led the provinces in Frankish Germany? Counts, dukes, and nobles Which King protected the Pope and fought with the Magyars? King Otto I
  15. Section 1 After Otto’s victory, what name did the Pope give to his empire? Holy Roman Empire Which Kings wanted to unite Italy and Germany, but the Pope disagreed not wanting the Emperor to have too much power? Fredrick I & II
  16. Section 1 Which missionary in Ireland set up churches and monasteries to spread Christianity? Patrick Which Pope wanted all of Europe to convert to Christianity? Gregory I (Gregory the Great)
  17. Section 1 What ruler of Kent was converted to Christianity? Ethelbert What were the writing rooms that monks copied works in called? Scriptoria
  18. Section 1 Who led monasteries? Abbots Which Pope issued a decree forbidding kings from appointing church officials? Pope Gregory VII
  19. Section 1 Which Emperor contradicted Pope Gregory VII because he did not want to lose power to the nobles? Henry IV What did the Pope do to Henry because of this? He excommunicated him
  20. Section 1 After Henry IV begged for forgiveness after being excommunicated, another Emperor and Pope created an agreement. What was it called and what did it state? Concordat of Worms What is a concordat? An agreement between a pope and a king What did the Concordat of Worms state? King chooses government jobs, Pope chooses church officials
  21. Section 1 Which Pope wanted more control of the kings? Pope Innocent III How did he achieve this? By issuing interdicts Done with Section 1!
  22. Section 2 What is the term for the relationship where nobles give land to those who fight for them and provide protection? Feudalism Who is the person who fights and serves for the person of a higher rank in this agreement? Vassal
  23. Section 2 What were the vassals called in Europe? Knights The knights were given land for their services, what was it called? Fief
  24. Section 2 On the fief, the knights created large estates. What were they called? Manors What were the peasants who lived on, worked on, and could never leave the manor called? Serfs
  25. Section 2 On a manor, what was the steep hill called? Motte What was the open space called? Bailey
  26. Section 2 What was the central building called? The Keep What was the area within the Keep that people slept, ate, and entertained visitors? The Great Hall
  27. Section 2 Name at least one invention that helped medieval European agriculture. Heavy wheeled plow with Iron blade Horse collar to pull plow Harnessing water and wind power Crop rotation What was the code of the European knights? Chivalry
  28. Section 2 What was the long heavy spear that knights used called? Lance What invention made it possible for the warriors to sit on horseback with their heavy armor and weapons without falling off? Stirrup
  29. Section 2 How many Catholic feast days did peasants celebrate per year? Over 50 What was the staple food for peasants? Dark Dense Bread
  30. Section 2 What Italian city became a center of trade? Venice What region of Northern Europe became a major producer of woolen cloth? Flanders
  31. Section 2 What is someone called when they are 10-17, earn no wages, and are only learning their craft? Apprentice Once they earn wages what are they called? Journeyman What would they have to do to become a master? Create a masterpiece
  32. Section 2 What is a business group for the purpose of setting prices, ensuring quality goods, and determining who could join the craft called? Guild What different jobs could a woman be involved in? Baking, Hat making, Brewing Done with Section 2!
  33. Section 3 Who united Anglo-Saxons to drive out Vikings and called it “Angleland?” Alfred of Wessex What area in Western France was named after the Vikings? Normandy (Norsemen)
  34. Section 3 Who had the right to the throne in England after Edward died? William, ruler of Normandy Who claimed the throne instead, maddening William? Harold Godwinson
  35. Section 3 What battle did this disagreement cause and who won? The Battle of Hastings; William the Conqueror As King of England, what did William do that hadn’t been done since Roman time and what was it called? Took a census; Doomesday book
  36. Section 3 Who kept the order under William’s rule? Sheriffs What was law that was the same throughout the kingdom called? A Body of Common Law
  37. Section 3 Who set up a body of Common law in England? Henry II What were the names of the juries, and what were their duties? Grand jury: Should the person be accused? Trial jury: Innocent or guilty?
  38. Section 3 Which hated King was forced to sign a document that gave nobles more rights? John I What was the document called? Magna Carta
  39. Section 3 According to the Magna Carta, who did the King have to agree with before he could collect taxes? Great Council Which king created a Parliament or group to create laws? Edward I What were the two houses of Parliament and who made them up? House of Lords—Nobles/church officials House of Commons—knights/wealthy townspeople
  40. Section 3 When Charlemagne’s empire became France, who ruled in the Paris area? King Hugh Capet Which Capetian King conquered large parts of England and made France more powerful? Philip II
  41. Section 3 Who met with Clergy, nobles, and townspeople to create the first Parliament in France? Philip IV What was it called? “Estates General”
  42. Section 3 What was the 1st Estate? Clergy What was the 2nd Estate? Knights What was the 3rd Estate? Wealthy townspeople
  43. Section 3 What ethnic group included Croats, Serbs, Bulgarians, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Ukrainians, Belorussians, and Russians? Slavs What area did the Slavs control? Between the Carpathian Mountains and the Volga River Who moved in to rule them? The Vikings
  44. Section 3 What did the Slavs call their Viking rulers? Rus Which Viking leader created a Rus state around Kiev? Oleg
  45. Section 3 What was this state called? KievanRus Who led KievanRus? Grand Duke of Kiev
  46. Section 3 What were princes called in KievanRus? Boyars What religion was KievanRus due to their Ruler Vladimir marrying the Byzantine emperor’s sister? Eastern Orthodox
  47. Section 3 Who invaded KievanRus, destroying everything, and what were they called by the natives? Mongols; “tatars” What was the only city that was spared and what leader did they have to pay tribute to? Novgorod; Khan
  48. Section 3 Who ruled Novgorod and what title was he given after defeating the Swedes and Germans? Alexander Nevsky; Grand Duke What was the trading city that Nevsky’s son Daniel ruled? Moscow
  49. Section 3 Which Emperor was given permission by the Mongols to collect taxes? Ivan I Who became the first emperor of Russia and what did he call himself? Ivan III (Ivan the Great); Czar
  50. Section 3 Which czar ended the Mongol rule over Moscow and expanded his territory north and west? Ivan IV Done with Section 3!
  51. Section 4 Which religious order created new farming techniques? Cistercian Order Who was the leader of this order who promoted the second Crusade, advised the Pope, and defended the poor against the rich? Bernard of Clairvaux
  52. Section 4 Which religious order lived in towns, taught Christianity, and helped the poor? Franciscans Who was it created by? Francis of Assisi
  53. Section 4 Which religious order defended Church teachings and preached to well-educated people? Dominicans Who founded this order? Dominic de Guzmán
  54. Section 4 What was the name of the community that noble women who were unmarried, widowed, or scholars could enter? Convents Which nun who composed music headed a German convent? Hildegard of Bingen
  55. Section 4 Who were the people who preached out to the world? They owned no property or money and were beggars. Friars What was a Roman Catholic worship service called? Mass
  56. Section 4 What were rituals that only clergy could perform called? Sacraments What was the most important sacrament? Communion
  57. Section 4 What were holy men and women on the church called? Saints What were religious beliefs that conflicted with the teachings of the church? Heresy
  58. Section 4 Who was one of the most famous saints who was the mother of Jesus? Mary What were bones or personal belongings of saints that were believed to heal? Relics
  59. Section 4 What was the harsh court that tried accused heretics called? The Inquisition Why was this harsh treatment and torture allowed if they were teaching a Christian message? They said they were helping the accused heretics get to heaven
  60. Section 4 What group of people were persecuted in part because of their profession as moneylenders? Jews The Jews were blamed for many of Europe’s problems. What is that called? Scapegoat
  61. Section 4 What is the term for hatred of Jews? Anti-Semitism During medieval times, Jews were expelled. Where did they settle? Poland/East Europe
  62. Section 4 What were the cathedrals that were squat with thick walls and little light called? Romanesque What were the cathedrals that were huge with giant stained glass windows and flying buttresses called? Gothic
  63. Section 4 What cities held the first universities? Bologna, Oxford, Paris What was one topic you could study at a university that is the study of religion and God? Theology
  64. Section 4 Which priest combined the teachings of Aristotle with the church teachings? Thomas Aquinas What law did her write about that gave people the rights to live, learn, worship, and reproduce? Natural Law
  65. Section 4 What was the term that describes using reason to explain faith? Scholasticism What was the summary of Aquinas’s ideas/knowledge called? Summa Theologica
  66. Section 4 What language did churches, universities, and authors use? Latin What were local languages such as Spanish, French, English, Italian, and German called? Vernacular
  67. Section 4 What type of literature such as the Song of Roland was about fighting? Heroic Epic What type of literature was about the love of a knight and lady? Troubadour Done with Section 4!
  68. Section 5 What plague hit the medieval world in the 1300’s? The Black Death What was most likely the specific disease of the Black Death? Bubonic Plague
  69. Section 5 Where did the black death originate? The Gobi desert Which group unknowingly introduced it to western Europe? The Italians
  70. Section 5 Where was the battle between Muslims and Europeans that the Mongols called off because they were all sick? Caffa What was Caffa a trade colony of? Genoa (an Italian city state)
  71. Section 5 Which King of England claimed Normandy starting the Hundred Years’ War? William Which French King also wanted control of it? Edward III
  72. Section 5 What battle did the English archers win? Crécy After this victory, which English King attacked again and gained another victory? Henry V
  73. Section 5 Who was the French peasant girl whose faith led France into a victory but was later burned at the stake? Joan of Arc Which city was this victory in? Orléans
  74. Section 5 After the English loss of the Hundred Years’ War, they went into a civil war. What was it called? The War of Roses What was the outcome of this war? Henry VII started the Tudor dynasty
  75. Section 5 What group of people controlled the Iberian Peninsula starting in 711? The Muslims What was it called when Christians tried to regain control from them? The Reconquista
  76. Section 5 What three kingdoms was the Iberian Peninsula divided into? Portugal, Castile, Aragon What two monarchs married uniting Castile and Aragon and started the Spanish Inquisition to rid the Iberian Peninsula of Jews and Muslims? Isabella and Ferdinand Done with Section 5!

  78. Battle of Tours Who? Charles Martel (Frankish-Christian) vs. Muslims What? A battle between Christians and Muslims Why? Muslims crossed the Pyrenees from the Iberian Peninsula into France Where? Tours, France When? 732
  79. Battle of Tours Why is this event important to study? Stops the spread of Islam further into Europe Helps begin feudalism—Charles Martel promises estates Muslims are forces into Iberian Peninsula until 1492
  80. Battle of Hastings Who? William the Conqueror  Norman Harold Godwinson Anglo-Saxon What? Norman Invasion of England Why? Edward Died, William had the right to the throne, Harold Claimed it, William was mad Where? Hastings, England When? 1066
  81. Battle of Hastings Why is this event important to study? Blend of Viking, Frankish, and Anglo-Saxon Culture William Brings feudalism to England
  82. Magna Carta Who? John I vs. English Nobles What? Document forced upon John I by nobles Why? King too powerful, nobles wanted rights Where? Runnymede, England When? 1215
  83. Magna Carta Why is this event important to study? Kings power is limited—must consult Great Council Begins the march to Democracy—seed to Representative Government
  84. Crusades Who? Christian Europeans vs. Muslims from North Africa and the Middle East What? Holy War—200 years of fighting Why? Control of Jerusalem/Holy Lands Turks had been attacking Constantinople Where? Jerusalem and the Holy Lands When? 1095-1291
  85. Crusades Why is this event important to study? Trade increases & Age of Exploration Feudalism Decreases Intellectual Growth—knowledge from Muslims helps bring Renaissance
  86. Peasant Revolt Who? Wat Tyler vs. King Richard II What? English Peasants revolting against nobles Why? Poll Tax too much for peasants to pay Where? England When? 1381
  87. Peasant Revolt Why is this event important to study? Trying to gain rights  action of the people Unsuccessful, but they get rights in 500 years
  88. Black Death Who? Europe What? Plague (Deadly Disease) Why? Spread by rats and fleas Where? Most of Europe When? 1347-1350
  89. Black Death Why is this event important to study? With less peasants, peasants were in demand  less feudalism Economic crisis Social/Religious Crisis
  90. 100 Years’ War Who? France vs. England What? War Why? King of England claimed France Where? Crécy Enlgand won Orléans  France won When? 1337-1453
  91. 100 Years’ War Why is this event important to study? France emerges as a nation Throws England into a civil war (War of Roses), Tudor dynasty emerges
  92. Reconquista Who? Muslims vs. Spanish (Isabella and Ferdinand) What? Spanish regaining land from Muslims Why? 711—Muslims entered Spain Where? Iberian Peninsula When? Ends in 1492
  93. Reconquista Why is this event important to study? Money to send Columbus to America Muslim culture—art, architecture, knowledge

  95. Important Dates What happened in 711? The Muslims entered the Iberian Peninsula
  96. Important Dates What happened in 1066? The Battle of Hastings
  97. Important Dates What happened in 1215? The Magna Carta was signed
  98. Important Dates What happened in 1492? (Besides Columbus sailing the ocean blue) The Muslims were finally forced out of the Iberian peninsula
  99. MAP

  100. The Iberian Peninsula 711: Where do the Muslims go? Granada
  101. The Iberian Peninsula *Tours After Granada, where do Muslims spread to? Granada
  102. The Iberian Peninsula *Tours Battle of Tours: Muslims kicked out of Frankish Lands What happened at Tours? Granada
  103. The Iberian Peninsula *Tours Reconquista Battle of Tours: Muslims kicked out of Frankish Lands What forced Muslims to completely leave the Iberian Peninsula? What year were they finally expelled? Granada 1492
  104. OTHER

  105. English Law & Government Who strengthened the monarchy’s control over England? Henry II What was the law that applied to all of England? Common Law
  106. English Law & Government What jury decided whether or not to accuse a person? Whether they were innocent or guilty? Grand Jury; trial jury How did common law strengthen the monarch? They let the monarch make the decisions—common laws, his officials in juries
  107. English Law & Government Who was forced to sign the Magna Carta? John I Why did the Barons dislike John I? Raised taxes, seized property Lost Normandy to France Excommunicated by Innocent III
  108. English Law & Government
  109. The Crusades What started the Crusades? Turks attacking Constantinople and not letting Christian pilgrims into Jerusalem Who was involved at the beginning of the Crusades and what did they do? Alexius I—Byzantine Emperor Pope Urban II—calls upon Europeans to fight for God
  110. The Crusades In what two ways do the crusades unite Europe? King & Pope Eastern Orthodox & Catholic Why do people choose to go into a Crusade? Religion, wealth, adventure, fame/glory
  111. The Crusades What was accomplished during the first crusade? Only military success Captured Jerusalem/Holy Lands 4 Christian States Jerusalem (in Palestine) Edessa Antioch Tripoli
  112. The Crusades What was accomplished during the second crusade? Europeans lost Edessa
  113. The Crusades What was accomplished during the third crusade? Muslims recaptured Jerusalem French & English Kings + the Holy Roman Emperor were very weak Saladin (Egyptian Muslim) made a treaty with them
  114. The Crusades Why was a 4th (and many more) crusade pursued even though they had a treaty? Pope Innocent III still wanted to capture Jerusalem How did it turn out? Not Successful
  115. The Crusades Why did the Christians fail to keep the city of Jerusalem and the Holy Lands? Too far away Didn’t stay Land Surrounded by Muslims Not a professional army Disease
  116. Crusades What were the three major outcomes of the Crusades? Trade increased—wantedgoods from the west, Age of Exploration Feudalism Decreased—serfs in high demand, left manor Intellectual Growth—knowledge from Muslims led to Renaissance
  117. Recapitulation

  118. RECAP How did Geography influence where medieval Europenas settled and what they did? Rivers trade, defense, travel, farming Mountains Barriers, herding Coasts Fishing, trade Fjords Thin soil, caused Vikings to raid PlainsFarming
  119. RECAP How could a noble be both a lord and a vassal? King Noble Knight Peasant Lord Vassal Lord Vassal
  120. RECAP Why was Philip IV called Philip the Fair? He had fair skin He created the Estates General which gave power not just to the monarch but the clergy, nobles, and wealthy townspeople as well
  121. RECAP What news ideas/learning developed in medieval Europe? Government slow growth of democracy Universities theology, etc. Religious orders Cistercians, Art/Architecture Literature Heroic epics, Troubadour poetry
  122. RECAP What caused the War of Roses and how did it affect England? England losing the Hundred Years’ War The Tudor Dynasty Emerged Made England a more powerful unified nation
  123. *Bonus*

  124. Bonus What year was Joan of Arc made a Saint? A. 1498 B. 1853 C. 1920 D. 1932
  125. THE END