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Stalking: Identifying the Crime and Supervising Stalkers

Stalking: Identifying the Crime and Supervising Stalkers

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Stalking: Identifying the Crime and Supervising Stalkers

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  1. Stalking: Identifying the Crime and Supervising Stalkers APAI Training Conference Newport, Rhode Island April 21, 2009 Presented by: Jodi Rafkin jrafkin@ncvc.org

  2. The Critical Role of Community Corrections Officers “Community Corrections Officers are charged with the dual goals of supporting victim safety and autonomy while simultaneously holding offenders accountable for their behavior. Early intervention may prevent illness, injury, and even death by supporting victim safety and reinforcing the [offender’s] accountability for his choice of coercive and violent behavior.”

  3. Understanding stalking • Considerations for supervising offenders • Victim contact • SRC & APPA Project – Guide for Responding to Stalking for Community Corrections Officers • Your feedback

  4. Stalking Pattern of behavior directed at a specific person that causes a reasonable person fear.

  5. Understanding Stalking • Can you threaten someone without using any threatening words? • Can non-criminal behaviors constitute the crime of stalking? Context is critical!

  6. Understanding Stalking “Sometimes I unlock my car and find a rose on the seat—no note, just the rose. Somehow he got into my car and left it there; it’s all he needs to do to terrorize me.”

  7. 3.4 million people stalked annually Women nearly 3 times greater risk of being stalked than men Persons aged 18-24 experienced the highest rates of stalking victimization Nearly half experienced at least 1 unwanted contact per week 11% had been stalked for five or more years Prevalence of Stalking • - Stalking Victimization in the United States, BJS (2009)

  8. Gender of Offenders Female Victims Male Victims 41% 67% 43% 24%

  9. Relationship Between Victim and Offender • - Stalking Victimization in the United States, BJS (2009)

  10. Connection to Intimate Partner Violence 81% of stalking victims who were stalked by an intimate partner reported that they had also been physically assaulted by that partner 31% of women stalked by her intimate partner were also sexually assaulted by that partner National Violence Against Women Survey, Tjaden & Thoennes (1998)

  11. Stalking and Intimate Partner Violence

  12. Point in Intimate Relationship When Stalking of Women Occurs

  13. Intimate Partner Stalkers: Increased Risk for Victims • More likely to physically approach victim • More insulting, interfering and threatening • More likely to use weapons • Behaviors more likely to escalate quickly • More likely to re-offend The RECON Typology of Stalking, Mohandie et al (2006)

  14. Stalking Violence 35.9% of women stalked by former romantic partners experienced stalking violence • any physical attack on the victim by the stalker that resulted in physical injury to the victim or that was interpreted by the victim as being intended to result in physical injury - Women’s Experience of Violence During Stalking by Former Romantic Partners (2005)

  15. Lethality • 76% of femicide cases involved at least one episode of stalking within 12 months prior to the murder. • 85% of attempted femicide cases involved at least one episode of stalking within 12 months prior to the attempted murder. Stalking and Intimate Partner Femicide, McFarlane et al. (1999)

  16. Lethality • 67% of femicide victims had been physically abused by their intimate partner in the 12 months before the murder. • 89% of the femicide victims who had been physically abused had also been stalked in the 12 months before the murder. Stalking and Intimate Partner Femicide, McFarlane et al. (1999)

  17. Physical Abuse + Stalking = Higher indicator of lethality thaneither behavior alone

  18. The Intersection of Stalking and Sexual Assault

  19. Stalking and Sexual Assault 31% of women stalked by her intimate partner were also sexually assaulted by that partner National Violence Against Women Survey, Tjaden & Thoennes (1998)

  20. Stalking & Sexual Assault on Campus • In 10.3% of campus stalking incidents, the victim reported that the stalker forced or attempted sexual contact - National Sexual Victimization of College Women (2000) • 3/4 of women who experienced stalking-related behaviors experienced other forms of victimization (sexual, physical, or both) • Stalking and rape/sexual assault only 26% • Stalking, physical and rape/sexual assault 11% - Stalking acknowledgement and reporting among college women experiencing intrusive behaviors (2007)

  21. FBI Research • Interviews with convicted rapists in prison • General pattern for rape: • Targeted women • Watched them over time • Waited for opportunity when woman was vulnerable • Is this stalking?

  22. Stalkers

  23. Profiles THERE ARE NO DEFINITIVE PROFILES OF STALKERS!

  24. Simple obsessional Love Erotomania False victimization syndrome Intimate Nonintimate Organized Delusional Stalker Typologies • Multiple typologies – ranging from 3 to 12 • Can be helpful, but are only general classifications • Individual stalkers may not precisely fit any single category, and often exhibit characteristics associated with more than one category

  25. Demographics Criminal History: • 33% had prior adult violent criminal history • 19% had prior adult non-violent criminal record • 27% had no priors The RECON Typology of Stalking, Mohandie et al (2006)

  26. Demographics • 46% of offenders had a clear or probable DSM-IV-TR diagnosis at time of stalking; 30% had none • Substance abuse present in 32% of cases • Suicidal ideation present in 25% of cases The RECON Typology of Stalking, Mohandie et al (2006)

  27. Why do they stalk? • Seeking Affection • Rejection • Obsession • Power & Control • Sexual Gratification • Planning to commit a crime • Because they can

  28. “The Stalker” e-card www.americangreetings.com

  29. Stalking Behavior

  30. Pattern of Behavior • 2/3 of stalkers pursue their victim at least once per week • 78% of stalkers use more than one means of approach • Weapons used to harm or threaten victimsin about 20% of cases - The RECON Typology of Stalking The RECON Typology of Stalking, Mohandie et al (2006)

  31. Stalking Behaviors • - Stalking Victimization in the United States, BJS (2009)

  32. Stalking Behaviors - Stalking in Texas (2007)

  33. Stalking Behaviors Threatened to report respondents to CPS or other authorities if demands were not met. (10.2%) Threatened to report to police for something that did not occur. (16.4%) - Stalking in Texas (2007)

  34. Use of Technology to Stalk • Phones • Cameras • Global Positioning Systems (GPS) • Computers • Email & IM • Spyware • Assistive technologies • Social networking sites

  35. Use of Technology to Stalk • More than 1 in 4 victims reported some form of technology used • 83% email • 35% instant messaging (IM) • 7% electronic monitoring of some kind • Video or digital cameras were equally likely as listening devices or bugs to be used to track victims • - Stalking Victimization in the United States, BJS (2009)

  36. Average Duration of Stalking • All stalking: 1.8 years • Intimate partner stalking: 2.2 years National Violence Against Women Survey, Tjaden & Thoennes (1998)

  37. Duration of Stalking • - Stalking Victimization in the United States, BJS (2009)

  38. Recidivism Rates • Occurred in 60% of cases • Time between intervention and recidivism was about 2 months • Ranged from 1 day to 6 years The RECON Typology of Stalking, Mohandie et al (2006)

  39. Reporting to Law Enforcement • 37% of male stalking victims • 41% of female stalking victims • - Stalking Victimization in the United States, BJS (2009)

  40. Reports to Law Enforcement • 54% of femicide victims reported stalking to police before they were killed by their stalkers. • 46% of attempted femicide victims reported stalking to police before the attempted murder. Stalking and Intimate Partner Femicide, McFarlane et al. (1999)

  41. Reasons For Not Reporting • - Stalking Victimization in the United States, BJS (2009)

  42. Impact on Victims

  43. Victim Impact • Loss of sleep • Nightmares (sleeping and awake) • Weight loss/ gain; changes in eating patterns • Depression • Anxiety; hypervigilence • Difficulty concentrating

  44. Mental/Emotional Impact 80% of victims reported increased anxiety 30% of female & 20% of male victims sought psychological counseling 30% of victims developed PTSD 25% of victims considered or attempted suicide Financial Impact 74% reported that the stalking partner interfered with employment 59% experience work disruption or a diminished ability to obtain or maintain employment because of work interference by stalking partner. Victim Impact

  45. Impact on Victims • Afraid of: • 46% not knowing what would happen next • 29% behavior would never stop • 9% death • 1 in 8 of employed victims lost time from work • More than half lost 5 days or more • - Stalking Victimization in the United States, BJS (2009)

  46. Victims’ Voices

  47. “It’s not easy to describe the fear you have when you see the stalker, or signs of the stalker, everywhere you go. I have given up all hopes of ever having a safe life. For the rest of my life, I will be looking over my shoulder, expecting to see him there.”