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Chapter 12 Fire Protection Systems and Equipment

Chapter 12 Fire Protection Systems and Equipment

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Chapter 12 Fire Protection Systems and Equipment

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  1. Chapter 12Fire Protection Systems and Equipment

  2. Introduction • Water is the most common extinguishing agent used for combating fires • Automatic firefighting devices have been developed to aid in the application of water and other firefighting agents • In occupancies or applications where water may cause damage or be ineffective, other extinguishing agents have been developed

  3. Learning Objective 1 Components of a Water Supply System • WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM • All systems must have storage capability • Capacity and adequacy • Adequacy gauged in several areas • Average daily consumption • Maximum daily consumption • Peak hourly consumption

  4. Learning Objective 1 Components of a Water Supply System • DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM • Underground piping called water mains • Largest are primary feeders • Intermediate are secondary feeders • Distributor piping • Common sizes are 8, 12, and 16 inch

  5. Learning Objective 1 Components of a Water Supply System • TYPES OF HYDRANTS IN USE TODAY • Wet barrel hydrant • Dry barrel hydrant • Dry hydrant • Hydrant installation • Cont.

  6. Learning Objective 1 Components of a Water Supply System • TYPES OF HYDRANTS IN USE TODAY • Airport or special property • Complete prefire program • Flushing hydrants • Hydrant testing • Hydrant painting

  7. Learning Objective 2 Importance of Dependable Water Supply System • PUBLIC WATER COMPANIES • Set up under public utility laws • Provide for everyday needs of customers • Usually have elected officials to administrate • PRIVATE WATER COMPANIES • Maintain their own distribution and storage equipment

  8. Learning Objective 3 Components of Water Supply Program • WATER SYSTEMS PROGRAM • Letter of working agreement • Grid map • Hydrant survey and • service records • Preplanning • Cont.

  9. Learning Objective 3 Components of Water Supply Program • WATER SYSTEMS PROGRAM • Auxiliary sources of water supply • Reservoirs • Cisterns • Swimming pools • Canals • Rivers

  10. Learning Objective 4 Fire Detection Systems and Their Components • PRIVATE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS • Designed to protect individual occupancies from fire • Private homes, businesses, manufacturing plants, or public buildings • Main purpose is to alert occupants • Some systems alert and extinguish

  11. Learning Objective 4 Fire Detection Systems and Their Components • DETECTION SERVICES • Smoke detector • Ionization chamber detector • Flame or light detector • Visible smoke detector • Cont.

  12. Learning Objective 4 Fire Detection Systems and Their Components • DETECTION SERVICES • Rate of rise detector • Fixed temperature detector • Carbon monoxide (CO) detector • Manual pull alarm • Water flow switch or excess flow alarm

  13. Learning Objective 4 Fire Detection Systems and Their Components • MONITORED ALARMS • Combination of alarms • Must be monitored at some level • Transmits to fire department • Sometimes plagued with frequent false alarms

  14. Learning Objective 5 Extinguishing Systems and Their Components • SPRINKLER SYSTEMS • Residential sprinklers • Commercial and industrial • Wet pipe system • Dry pipe system • Deluge system • Cont.

  15. Learning Objective 5 Extinguishing Systems and Their Components • SPRINKLER SYSTEMS • Preaction sprinkler system • Sprinkler heads • Standpipe systems • Foam systems • Carbon dioxide • Cont.

  16. Learning Objective 5 Extinguishing Systems and Their Components • SPRINKLER SYSTEMS • Dry chemical systems • Wet chemical extinguishing systems (Class K) • Fire extinguishers • Obsolete agents • Fire pumps • Pressure-reducing devices

  17. Learning Objectives 6 and 7 Different Types of Extinguishing Agents How Various Extinguishing Agents Work • WATER • Most common fire extinguishing agent in use today • Extinguished through cooling and smothering • Highest specific heat of any known substance • Latent heat of vaporization • Numerous delivery systems available

  18. Learning Objectives 6 and 7 Different Types of Extinguishing Agents How Various Extinguishing Agents Work • FOAM PROPERTIES • Its effectiveness over plain water is becoming popular • Properties of extinguishing fires • Components are water and foam concentrate • Traditional purpose is to • extinguish flammable liquids

  19. Learning Objectives 6 and 7 Different Types of Extinguishing Agents How Various Extinguishing Agents Work • CLASS B FOAM • Forms a layer above the surface of the liquid • Chemical foams • Mechanical foams • Protein foam • Fluoroprotein foam • Cont.

  20. Learning Objectives 6 and 7 Different Types of Extinguishing Agents How Various Extinguishing Agents Work • CLASS B FOAM • Alcohol-type protein foams • Aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) • Most popular type of synthetic foam • High-expansion foams • Will reduce visibility to nearly zero

  21. Learning Objectives 6 and 7 Different Types of Extinguishing Agents How Various Extinguishing Agents Work • CLASS A FOAM • Much lower concentration than class B • Can stick to vertical surfaces • Can pre-treat areas in advance • Blocking gel • Wetting agents • Fire retardant

  22. Learning Objectives 6 and 7 Different Types of Extinguishing Agents How Various Extinguishing Agents Work • CARBON DIOXIDE • Extinguishes by smothering • Installed where water is not the agent of choice • HALOGENATED AGENTS • Break the chemical chain reaction • Concern about their effect on the ozone layer

  23. Learning Objectives 6 and 7 Different Types of Extinguishing Agents How Various Extinguishing Agents Work • CLEAN AGENTS • Do not deplete the Earth’s ozone layer • DRY CHEMICAL • Mixture of finely divided powders • DRY POWDER • Used on combustible metals (Class D)

  24. Summary • The fire department should have a close working relationship with the local water company • A thorough knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of the water system is necessary for decision-making purposes at the fire scene • Firefighting agents are all applied through some type of system • Pre-plan what is necessary to support these systems in case of fire