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Cardiac PowerPoint Presentation

Cardiac

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Cardiac

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  1. Foundations of Neonatal Care Cardiac

  2. Objectives • Describe the anatomic and physiologic transition from fetal to neonatal circulation. • List the diagnostic tests to be ordered for an infant with a cardiac condition. • Describe three clinical presentations of cardiac conditions. • Explain the nursing care required for an infant with a cardiac condition. • Describe post–cardiac surgery nursing care. • Identify nursing considerations for the administration of common cardiac medications.

  3. Physiology

  4. Embryology of CardiacConditions Cardiac tubedevelops; primitiveheart structures form Atrial and ventricular septa form; endocardial cushions form the atrioventricular valves Great vessels including aorta and branches, septum, and semilunar valves form 4 weeks Weeks gestation 8 weeks Ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect; endocardial cushion defect; stenosis, atresia, absence, or deformation of the tricuspid and mitral valves Truncus arteriosus, tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary/aorta valve atresia or stenosis, transposition of great vessels Corrected transposition, dextrocardia

  5. Fetal Circulation Reprinted with permission of greystone.net.

  6. Neonatal Circulation Reprinted with permission of greystone.net.

  7. Foundations of Neonatal Care Nutritional &Metabolic

  8. Objectives • List the normal values for blood pH, carbon dioxide (CO2), and bicarbonate (HCO3) for interpreting blood gases. • Write the formula for calculating total fluid intake. • Explain the nursing considerations for oral and enteral feeding. • Explain the nursing care for an infant with a fluid or electrolyte imbalance.

  9. Physiology

  10. Electrolyte Physiology Ca+ Ca+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Mg+ Na+ Na+ K+ Mg+ K+ Ca+ Na+ K+ K+ K+ Na+ K+ K+ K+ Mg+ K+ Na+ Inside cell Outside cell

  11. Acid-Base Balance • Acid-base regulation • Chemical buffering • Respiratory system • Kidneys • Acid-base imbalances • Acidosis pH <7.35 • Alkalosis pH >7.45 • Compensation • Minimize pH changes

  12. Acid-Base Balance pH pCO2 / HCO3 Acid-base disorder Compensation low high pCO2 respiratory acidosis high HCO3 high low pCO2 respiratory alkalosis low HCO3 low low HCO3 metabolic acidosis low pCO2 high high HCO3 metabolic alkalosis high pCO2 pH 7.20 7.40 pH 7.60 Acidic Alkalotic