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I N T E R V I E W I N G Principles and Practices Twelfth Edition

I N T E R V I E W I N G Principles and Practices Twelfth Edition

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I N T E R V I E W I N G Principles and Practices Twelfth Edition

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  1. I N T E R V I E W I N GPrinciples and PracticesTwelfth Edition Charles J. Stewart Purdue University William B. Cash Achievement Unlimited National Louis University

  2. An Introduction to Interviewing Slide 2 CHAPTER 1 • Chapter Summary • An Introduction to Interviewing • The Essential Elements of Interviews • A Relational Form of Communication • Electronic Interviews • Summary © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Introduction Slide 3 • Interviews share characteristics with intimate interactions, social conversations, small groups, and presentations, but are significantly different. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Introduction Slide 4 • Interviews share characteristics with intimate interactions, social conversations, small groups, and presentations, but are significantly different. • Interviews are distinguishable from other forms of interpersonal communication, and can be viewed as a relational form of communication. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Essential Elements of Interviews Slide 5 • The Five Elements of Interviews • Interactional An interview is interactional because there is an exchanging, or sharing, of roles, responsibilities, feelings, beliefs, motives, and information. Continued… © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Essential Elements of Interviews Slide 6 • Interactional • Roles may switch from moment to moment. • It takes two to make an interview a success. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Essential Elements of Interviews Slide 7 • Interactional • Roles may switch from moment to moment. • It takes two to make an interview a success. • Disclosure is essential in interviews. • All interviews involve risk. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Essential Elements of Interviews Slide 8 • Process • An interview is a complex, ever-changing process. • No interview occurs in a vacuum. • Once initiated, the interview is an ongoing process. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Essential Elements of Interviews Slide 9 • Parties • A dyadic process involves two parties. • If more than two parties are involved, a small group interaction may be occurring, but not an interview. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Essential Elements of Interviews Slide 10 • Purpose • All interviews have a degree of structure. • An interview is a conversation and much more. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Essential Elements of Interviews Slide 11 • Questions • All interviews involve questions and answers. • Questions play multiple roles in interviews. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Relational Form of Communication Slide 12 • The concept of relationship is inherent in the definition of “interviewing” • Each interview contributes to a relational history • Interviews with no prior history may be difficult “precisely because we don’t know the rules and so we don’t know exactly how to coordinate our conversational moves.” © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Relational Form of Communication Slide 13 • Stereotypes often play significant negative roles in interactions between strangers, since the parties have exchanged little personal information. • Relationships change over time and during interactions. • The situation may alter a relationship. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Relational Form of Communication Slide 14 • Relational Dimensions The five dimensions that determine the nature of our relationships in the interview process: © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Relational Form of Communication Slide 15 • Relational Dimensions The five dimensions that determine the nature of our relationships in the interview process: Similarity © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Relational Form of Communication Slide 16 • Relational Dimensions The five dimensions that determine the nature of our relationships in the interview process: Similarity 2. Inclusion/Involvement © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Relational Form of Communication Slide 17 • Relational Dimensions The five dimensions that determine the nature of our relationships in the interview process: Similarity 2. Inclusion/Involvement 3. Affection © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Relational Form of Communication Slide 18 • Relational Dimensions The five dimensions that determine the nature of our relationships in the interview process: Similarity 2. Inclusion/Involvement 3. Affection 4. Control © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Relational Form of Communication Slide 19 • Relational Dimensions The five dimensions that determine the nature of our relationships in the interview process: Similarity 2. Inclusion/Involvement 3. Affection 4. Control 5. Trust © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Relational Form of Communication Slide 20 • Global Relationships • Our social and work worlds have become global. • We must understand cultures to live and work in the 21st Century. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  21. A Relational Form of Communication Slide 21 • Men and Women in Relationships • Men and women communicate differently. • Women use communication as a primary way of establishing relationships. • Men communicate “to exert control, preserve independence, and enhance status.” © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  22. Electronic Interviews Slide 22 • The Telephone • The telephone interview is convenient and inexpensive. • Interviewers and interviewees can talk to several people at one time, answer or clarify questions directly, and receive immediate feedback. • A major drawback with telephone interviews is the lack of “presence” of parties. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  23. Electronic Interviews The Cellular Telephone • Cellular Telephones Have Created a Whole New World of Talking • Their Usage Has Created a New Concern for Privacy © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  24. Electronic Interviews Videoconferencing • Eight of Ten Companies Use Them for Recruiting Interviews • Visual Cues Are Limited to Upper-Body Ones • Videoconference Interviews Provide Less Nonverbal Information • Interviewees Do Not Prefer Videoconference Interviews © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  25. Electronic Interviews Slide 25 • The Internet • The internet lacks the nonverbal cues critical in interviews. • However, if both parties use the internet to interact in real time, it meets the definition of an interview. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  26. Summary Slide 26 • Interviewing is an interactional communication between two parties, at least one of whom has a predetermined and serious purpose, that involves the asking and answering of questions. • We employ interviews to get and give information, to recruit, to assess performance, to persuade, to counsel, and receive help, and to provide quality healthcare. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  27. Chapter 2 An Interpersonal Communication Process

  28. Chapter Summary • Two Parties in the Interview • Interchanging Roles During Interviews • Perceptions of Interviewer and Interviewee • Communication Interactions • Feedback • The Interview Situation • Outside Forces • Summary © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  29. Two Parties in the Interview • The Two Parties in the Interview • Each party consists of unique and complex individuals. • Although each party consists of unique individuals, both must act together if the interview is to be successful. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  30. Two Parties in the Interview © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  31. Interchanging Roles During Interviews Slide 31 • Both parties speak and listen from time to time, are likely to ask and answer questions, and take on the roles of interviewer and interviewee. • Two fundamental approaches to interviewing: directive or nondirective. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  32. Interchanging Roles During Interviews © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  33. Interchanging Roles During Interviews • Directive Approach • A directive approach allows the interviewer to maintain control. • Nondirective Approach • A nondirective approach enables the interviewee to share control. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  34. Interchanging Roles During Interviews • Combination of Approaches • Be flexible and adaptable when selecting approaches. • The roles we play should guide but not dictate approaches. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  35. Perceptions of Interviewer and Interviewee • Four Perceptions Drive Interactions • Self-perceptions • Perceptions of the other party • How the other party perceives us • How the other party perceives self © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  36. Perceptions of Interviewer and Interviewee © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  37. Perceptions of Interviewer and Interviewee • Perceptions of Self • What we perceive ourselves to be may be more important than what we are. • We see ourselves differently under different circumstances. • Self-esteem is closely related to self-worth. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  38. Perceptions of Interviewer and Interviewee • Perceptions of the Other Party • Perceptions are a two-way process. • Allow interactions to alter or reinforce perceptions. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  39. Communication Interactions • Levels of Interactions • Level 1 Interactions: • Avoid judgments, attitudes, and feelings • Are safe and superficial • Dominate interactions where there is little relational history, where trust has yet to be established, and the role relationship between superiors and subordinates. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  40. Communication Interactions • Levels of Interactions • Level 2 Interactions: • Require trust and risk-taking • More revealing of ideas, feelings, and information • Although riskier, can be ended easily © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  41. Communication Interactions • Levels of Interactions • Level 3 Interactions: • Involve full disclosure • Deal with intimate and controversial areas of inquiry • Requires a positive relationship © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  42. Communication Interactions © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  43. Communication Interactions • Sex, Culture, and Interactions • Women disclose more freely than men. • Culture may dictate what we disclose and to whom. • Positive and negative face are universal motives. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  44. Communication Interactions • Verbal Interactions • Never assume communication is taking place. • A word rarely has a single meaning. • Words may be so ambiguous that any two parties may assign very different meanings to them. • Beware of words that sound alike. • Words are rarely neutral. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  45. Communication Interactions • Nonverbal Interactions • Nonverbal signals send many different messages. • Any behavioral act, or its absence, can convey a message. • In mixed messages, the how may overcome the what. • Verbal and nonverbal messages are intricately intertwined. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  46. Feedback • Be perceptive, sensitive, and receptive. • It is difficult to listen with your mouth open and your ears closed. • Be flexible in selecting listening approaches. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  47. Feedback © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  48. Feedback • Listening for Comprehension • The intent of listening for comprehension is to understand content. • Listening for Empathy • The intent of empathic listening is to understand the other party. • Listening for Evaluation • The intent of evaluative listening is to judge content and actions. • Listening for Resolution • The intent of dialogic listening is to resolve problems. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  49. The Interview Situation © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  50. The Interview Situation • Initiating the Interview • Who initiates an interview and how may affect control, roles, and atmosphere. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.