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Chapter 8

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Chapter 8

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  1. Chapter 8 Understanding and Installing Hard Drives

  2. You Will Learn… • About hard drive technologies • How communication with hard drive BIOS is accomplished • How a hard drive is logically organized to hold data • How to install a hard drive • How to solve hard drive installation problems

  3. Hard Drive Technologies • How the hard drive reads and writes data to the drive • How the hard drive interfaces with the system

  4. Types of Hard Drive Interfaces • EIDE (Enhanced Integrated Device Electronics) interface standard • Used by most hard drives • Applies to other drives besides hard drives • Complex method of organizing tracks and sectors on the disks • Other interface standards

  5. EIDE Standards • Define how hard drives and other drives relate to the system • Drives other than hard drives can use EIDE interface if they follow the ATAPI (Advanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface) • Specify data transfer speed more than any other single factor

  6. ANSI Interface Standards

  7. EIDE Standards • Support two IDE connections, a primary and a secondary • Each connection can support up to two IDE devices for a total of four devices on a system • Possible configurations • Primary IDE channel, master device • Primary IDE channel, slave device • Secondary IDE channel, master device • Secondary IDE channel, slave device

  8. Motherboard with Two IDE Connectors

  9. Other Interface Standards • SCSI • Second most popular interface • IEEE 1394 (FireWire and i.Link) • Uses serial transmission of data • Popular for multimedia and home entertainment • Fibre Channel • For high-end systems with multiple hard drives • Can be faster than SCSI, but expensive

  10. Example of IEEE 1394

  11. How Hard Drives Work • One, two, or more platters are stacked together and spin in unison • Read/write heads • Controlled by an actuator • Move in unison across disk surfaces as disks rotate on a spindle • Require a hard drive controller

  12. A Hard Drive with Four Platters

  13. IDE Technology • Used by almost all hard drives • Use a varying number of sectors for each cylinder, depending on how close the cylinder is to the outer edge

  14. Hardware Subsystem Including an IDE Hard Drive

  15. Tracks and Sectorson an IDE Drive • Older MFM and RLL technologies use straightforward method of writing tracks and sectors • Number of bytes per track is determined by the centermost track • IDE drives use zone bit recording

  16. Tracks and Sectors

  17. Low-Level Formatting • Tracks and sector markings are written on the hard drive at the factory • IDE drives cannot be low-level formatted as part of preventive maintenance • OS does high-level formatting by executing remainder of the format process (creating boot sector, FAT, and root directory)

  18. Hard Drive Manufacturers

  19. Communicating withthe Hard Drive BIOS • With IDE drives, system BIOS and OS communicate with hard drive controller BIOS; only hard drive controller BIOS deals with physically locating data on the drive

  20. Calculating Drive Capacity on Older Drives • # cylinders (tracks) x # heads x # sectors = “N” • Divide “N” by 1,024 to convert to KB, then by 1,024 again to convert to MB

  21. Adjusting for More Complex Hard Drive Organization • CHS (cylinder, head, sector) mode or normal mode used for drives less than 528 MB • Large mode or ECHS (extended CHS) used for drives between 504 MB and 8.4 GB • LBA (logical block addressing) mode used for drives larger than 504 MB • OS and software can bypass system BIOS and communicate directly with the controller BIOS using device drivers

  22. Installations Using Legacy BIOS • Let the BIOS see the drive as a smaller drive • Upgrade the BIOS (best solution) • Upgrade the entire motherboard • Use software that interfaces between the older BIOS and the large-capacity drive • Use an adapter card that provides the BIOS to substitute for system BIOS

  23. How a Hard Drive Is Logically Organized to Hold Data • Drive must have track and sector markings written on it • A file system must be installed • Files needed to boot the PC must be copied to the root directory of the drive

  24. Steps to Prepare a Hard Drive to Hold Files • Low-level format • Partitioning the hard drive • High-level format

  25. Hard Drive Partitions and Logical Drives

  26. Hard Drive Partition Table in the MBR

  27. Hard Drive Partitions and Logical Drives • Partition table is exactly 512 bytes long, occupying one sector • Active partition • Partition of the hard drive used to boot the OS • Contains only a single logical drive (drive C) • Always the first partition on the drive

  28. Hard Drive with 3 Logical Drives

  29. Choice of File Systems • FAT16 • Virtual File Allocation (VFAT) • FAT32 • NTFS (New Technology file system)

  30. How Many Logical Drives • Use multiple logical drives to optimize space and access time to the drive • The larger the drive, the larger the cluster size, and the more slack or wasted space • Goal is to use as few logical drives as possible and still keep cluster size to a minimum • Use Fdisk, Diskpart, or Disk Management to create logical drives

  31. Size of Some Logical Drives

  32. When to Partition a Drive • When you first install a new hard drive • If an existing hard drive is giving errors • If you suspect a virus has attacked the drive • To wipe hard drive clean and install a new OS

  33. During Formatting… • OS format for each logical drive creates: • OS boot record • FAT • Root directory

  34. Complete Record Layout for the Boot Record

  35. Disk Type and Descriptor Byte

  36. Installing a Hard Drive • Set jumpers/DIP switches on drive; physically install drive inside case; attach power cord and data cable • Inform CMOS setup of new drive, or verify that autodetect correctly detected the drive • Use Fdisk to create partition(s) on the drive and divide extended partition into logical drives • Use Format command to high-level format each logical drive • Install the OS and other software

  37. Prepare for Installation • Keep notes • Have a good bootable disk or Windows 9x rescue disk available • Read documentation • Plan drive configuration • Prepare work area and take precautions

  38. Prepare for Installation

  39. Set Jumpers and DIP Switches

  40. Set Jumpers and DIP Switches

  41. Set Jumpers and DIP Switches

  42. Mount the Drive in the Bay

  43. Mount the Drive in the Bay

  44. Mount the Drive in the Bay

  45. Mount the Drive in the Bay

  46. Mount the Drive in the Bay

  47. Mount the Drive in the Bay

  48. Mount the Drive in the Bay

  49. If the Bay Is Too Large

  50. Use CMOS Setup to Change Hard Drive Settings