3000-BC-300BCAncient Egyptians • Earliest people known to maintain health records. Called upon the God’s to help them heal. • Physicians were usually priests who studied medicine. • Imhotep may have been the first physician. • Leeches were uses for bloodletting!!! • Average life span only 20-30 years….
Ancient Chinese • They begin to use acupuncture to treat injury and illness. • Use of powders made from herbs to heal. Often caused blisters and burns that they ultimately died from. • Did begin the search for medical reasons for illnesses. • Life span was again only 20-30 years.
Ancient Greeks1200 BC – 200 BC Hippocrates (460-377BC) was called the Father Of Medicine. He developed and Organized methods to observe the human body. Recoded signs and symptoms of many Diseases. Created a high standard of ethics, like the Oath of Hippocrates, still used by Physicians today.
THE OATH OF HIPPOCRATES • I SWEAR by Apollo the physician and Æsculapius, and Health, and All-heal, and all the gods and goddesses, that, according to my ability and judgment, • I will keep this Oath and this stipulation — to reckon him who taught me this Art equally dear to me as my parents, to share my substance with him, and relieve his necessities if required; to look upon his offspring in the same footing as my own brothers, and to teach them this art, if they shall wish to learn it, without fee or stipulation; and that by precept, lecture, and every other mode of instruction, • I will impart a knowledge of the Art to my own sons, and those of my teachers, and to disciples bound by a stipulation and oath according to the law of medicine, but to none others. • I will follow that system of regimen which, according to my ability and judgment, I consider for the benefit of my patients, and abstain from whatever is deleterious and mischievous. • I will give no deadly medicine to any one if asked, nor suggest any such counsel; and in like manner I will not give to a woman a pessary to produce abortion. With purity and with holiness I will pass my life and practice my Art. • I will not cut persons laboring under the stone, but will leave this to be done by men who are practitioners of this work. Into whatever houses I enter, I will go into them for the benefit of the sick, and will abstain from every voluntary act of mischief and corruption; and, further, from the seduction of females or males, of freemen and slaves. Whatever, in connection with my professional service, or not in connection with it, I see or hear, in the life of men, which ought not to be spoken of abroad, • I will not divulge, as reckoning that all such should be kept secret. While I continue to keep this Oath unviolated, may it be granted to me to enjoy life and the practice of the art, respected by all men, in all times. But should I trespass and violate this Oath, may the reverse be my lot.
Continued Ancient Greeks1200BC-200BC (342-322BC) Dissected animals and is called the cofounder of comparative anatomy. They began to stress diet and cleanliness as a way to prevent disease. Average life span for this era in time was 25-35 years of age.
ANCIENT ROMANS 753BC-410AD
CONT. Ancient Romans Began public health and Sanitation systems by realizing A filtration system was needed For public baths to prevent Disease.
Cont. Ancient Romans Cladius Glen who was a physician established many medical beliefs like: your body was regulated by four fluids, any imbalance in HUMORS resulted in illness, inflammation – vs- infectious disease, and finally that diet and exercise were a means to treat a disease. AVERAGE LIFE SPAN WAS 25- 35 years of age.
DARK AGES 400-800AD Emphasis was placed on saving The soul, and the study of Medicine was prohibited. Monks and priests provided Care for the sick and injured. Life span was 20-30 years!!!
Middle Ages800-1400 AD Physicians began to Obtain knowledge at Medical universities In the 9th Century
Middle Ages Continued A pandemic (worldwide epidemic) of the bubonic Plague (black death) killed ¾ of the population of Europe and Asia. The Black Death The Black Death came in three forms, the bubonic, pneumonic, and septicemic. Each different form of plague killed people in a vicious way. All forms were caused by a bacterium called Yersiniapestis. The mortality rate was 30-75%. The symptoms were L large and inflamed lymph nodes around the neck, Groin and arm pit areas. Victims suffered from joint Pain, headache, high fevers, nausea, vomiting,. Symptoms took from 1-7 days to appear after Becoming infected!!!
Middle Ages Continued • Rhazes, which were Arab physicians. They began requiring physicians to have a license. • Average life span is now 20-35 years of age.
RENAISSANCE1350-1650 AD The artist Michelangelo used dissection in order to Draw the human body more realistically.
Renaissance Cont. Development of the first printing press Allowed knowledge to be spread to others.
RENAISSANCE Cont…. (1511-1553) Was the first to describe The circulatory system in the lungs, and Explain how digestion was a source of Heat for the body. Average life span is 30-40 years.
16th & 17th Century • Causes of diseases were still not known. Many people died during childbirth or later from infections!! • The use of ligatures was discovered by Ambroise Pare He also improved the way fractures were delt with, and discovered the use of artificial limbs!! William Harvey discovered the circulation of blood to and from the heart in 1628.
16th & 17th Century Continues Anton Van Leeuwenhoek invented the first Microscope in 1666.
16th & 17th Century Continues Apothecaries (early Pharmacists) made, prescribed and sold medications. Average life span 35-45-years.
18th Century Gabriel Fahrenheit created the first mercury thermometer in 1714. People would place there mouth over the top section! People back then must have had big mouths, HUH!
18th Century Continues John Priestly (1733-1804) discovered the element of oxygen in 1774.
18th Century Continues John Hunter (1728 -1793) was an English Surgeon. He established scientific surgical procedures, and Introduced tube feeding In 1778.
18th Century Continues Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) Invented the bifocals for glasses.
18th Century Continues Edward Jenner (1749-1823) developed a vaccination for smallpox in 1796.
SMALLPOX • Small pox was a contagious virus that developed some 300 years ago. In the 18th century if you came down with smallpox you often faced death. If lucky enough to survive people were often left scared and blind. It made people have flu like symptoms, and caused deep sores that scabbed horribly. In the United States we stopped giving the smallpox vaccination in 1972 due to the eradication of the disease. Many of your parents will have a smallpox vaccination scar on there arm, ASK THEM!! • AVERAGE LIFE SPAN WAS 40-50 years
19th Century The first successful blood transfusion was performed on humans in 1818 by James Blundell.
19th Century Continues Dr. James Simpson (1811-1870) began using chloroform as an anesthetic in 1847.
19th Century Continues • Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) was the founder of modern nursing. • She established efficient and sanitary nursing units during Crimean War in 1854. • Opened the Nightingale School and Home for Nurses at St. Thomas’ Hospital in London in 1860. • She began professional education for nurses.
19th Century Continues Joseph Lister (1827-1912) started using disinfectants and antiseptics during surgery to prevent infection in 1865.
19th Century Continues Clara Barton (1821-1912) founded The American Red Cross in 1881.
19th Century Continues Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) contributed many discoveries to the practice of medicine including: Proving that microorganisms cause disease, pasteurizing milk to kill bacteria, and creating a vaccine for rabies in 1885.
19th Century Continues This is what the first known X-ray looked like in 1895. This was discovered by William Roentgen (1845-1923) .
19th Century • Bacteria causing gonorrhea and leprosy were discovered and identified in 1899. • THE AVERAGE LIFE SPAN WAS 40-60 YEARS!!
20th Century Walter Reed demonstrated that mosquitoes carried yellow fever in 1900.
20th Century Continues Sigmund Freud’s (1856-1939) studies formed the basis to psychology and psychiatry.
20th Century Continues The first kidney dialysis machine was developed in 1944.
20th Century Continues Jonas Salk (1914-1995) developed the polio vaccine using a dead polio virus in 1952 . In the late 1950’s Albert Sabin developed the oral live polio virus vaccine.
20th Century Continues • The first heart-lung machine was used for open-heart surgery in 1953. • The first successful kidney transplant was performed in humans in 1954 by Joseph Murray. • Birth control pills were approved by the FDA in 1960. • An arm severed at the shoulder was successfully reattached to the body in 1962.
20th Century Continues The first liver transplant was performed by Thomas Starzl in 1963.
20th Century Continues Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was identified as a disease in 1981. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) was identified as the cause of AIDS in 1981.
20th Century Continues Dolly as she became know, was the very first proof cloning was possible in 1997.