Download
wondrous events in evolution n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Wondrous Events in Evolution PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Wondrous Events in Evolution

Wondrous Events in Evolution

92 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Wondrous Events in Evolution

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Wondrous Events in Evolution Notes for Plant Taxonomy Biology 4420 at Utah State University Prepared by M.E. Barkworth

  2. Factors important to success Aspects of life to consider: • Nutrition • Reproduction • Competition • Cost/benefits of structures and strategies For dominance, it is not enough to be good – one must be better than one’s competitors For survival, it is enough to be better than or as good as one’s competitors in some situations.

  3. Land plants • 450 MYBP First evidence of land plants • Cutin, stomates,?mycorrhizal partnerships • Bryophytes and tracheophytes more or less simultaneous (give or take a million years or so)

  4. Diploid life style Backup system in place Tracheids More cellulose, lignin Benefits outweigh costs Tracheophytes

  5. Megaphyllous leaves • Microphyllous leaves • One vein • No axillary branches • No leaf gaps • Restricts shape, size • Megaphyllous leaves • Better transportation • Diverse shapes • Leaf gaps so less expensive • Benefits outweigh costs microphyllous leaves megaphyllous leaves

  6. Tracheophytes can be tall … • What’s the advantage? • Sex at ground level so no still restricted • Sex requires water so still restricted • A film of water is adequate • Chemical guidance system works well • Gametophytes independent, need moisture and nutrition source (soil) so still restricted

  7. The solution is …. • Ovules and pollen grains • Ovule provide food and protection for female gametophyte • Pollen grain protects the wandering male gametophyte • Still have to get the two together • Once fertilized, the ovule starts to become a seed

  8. Seeds 1 • Integumented • Protective cell layers • Integument(s) diploid • Indehiscent • Does not split • Megasporangium • Where female spores form and make megagametophyte which makes female gamete, aka egg

  9. Seeds 2 • Megasporangium produces • Megaspores which form megagametophyte which forms egg (female gamete) • Other cells of gametophyte provide nutrition – endosperm • Megasporangium wall forms nucellus • Megasporangium is surrounded by diploid tissue (integument) with vascular connection to parent • Integument displays great diversity (think seed coat)

  10. Seeds 3 • Advantages • Place genetically vulnerable phase, gametophyte, in protected surrounding • Provide great environment for that difficult event – mixing of DNA from parents • Great place for children to start life • Problem: How does male gamete get there?

  11. Solution - Pollen Grains • Armored airship for male gametophyte • Armor is sporopollenin • Meiosis in microsporangia forms first cell of microgametophyte • Male gametes develop through mitotic divisions in microgametophyte • Dispersal • Initially wind • Eventually insect • Some water

  12. Seed and Pollen Grain • Sex above ground level • Adequate moisture from female parent • Eventually reduction number of cell divisions and time in gametophyte phase for both males and females

  13. New problems • Bringing the male and female gametes together • Watch for new developments as plants solve this problem • “Educating” wind • Educating animals

  14. Back to being tall • Wood is energetically expensive • Need to minimize cost, maximize benefit • Fibers, the strong part of wood, primarily associated with vascular bundles • Organization of vascular tissue important

  15. Vascular Tissue Organizationhttp://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/webb/BOT311/Transition/invasion_landStele.htm • Rod • Cylinder • Scattered • Circle, aha! • Circular cambium • “Good Wood” has circle of vascular bundles that subsequently are united by cambium which form xylem on inside and phloem on outside

  16. Important but Extinct Groups • Progymnosperms (370 MYBP) • 35 million years • 12 m tall • Had “good wood”, fernlike foliage and reproduction

  17. Important but Extinct Groups • Pteridosperms • Seeds • Fern like leaves • Some had “good wood” • Cycads, Pinophytes, Gnetophytes, Angiosperms may have evolved independently from different groups of pteridosperms.