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Rescue Systems I Disaster response and Structural Collapse

Rescue Systems I Disaster response and Structural Collapse

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Rescue Systems I Disaster response and Structural Collapse

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  1. Rescue Systems I Disaster response and Structural Collapse By Jeff Palensky Firefighter/Paramedic

  2. Disasters can be man made or natural • May 18,th 1980, eruption of Mt. St. Helens • World Trade Bombing • Oklahoma City Bombing, April 19, 1995

  3. They can be relatively small scale or cover large areas • Sioux City Airliners Crash • Mississippi Valley Flood

  4. Resources • Local Resousces • State Resources • Federal Resources

  5. Local Resources • Fire Department • Law Enforcement • Public Works • Volunteer search and rescue • Community Disaster Response • Light rescue teams from business and industry

  6. State Resources • State Patrol • National Guard • Governor can request a declaration of disaster from the president

  7. Federal Resources • FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) • USAR task forces comprised of four components • Search • Rescue • Medical • Technical Staffing for the four components totals 62 personnel including a team leader and assistant

  8. Four Levels of USAROperational Capabilities • Basic Operation Level • Light Operation Level • Medium Operations Level • Heavy Operational level

  9. Basic Operation Level • Size up existing and potential conditions to conduct safe USAR • Procedures for establishing ICS • Procedures for activating appropriate USAR recourses • Utilize the standard USAR building and victom markings • Perform visual and audible search for victoms • Providing basic medical care

  10. Light Operation Level • Basic knowledge of tactics and theory to help locate likely survival spots • Provide BLS care • Knowledge of ability to perform breaching in light weight construction • Ability to transport patients for elevated or below grade areas of one to four stories

  11. Medium Operation Level • Minimum capability to conduct safe SAR in collapsed buildings • Understanding and ability to breach, break and lift heavy concrete • Use of tools listed in medium ops. tool list • Knowledge of heavy equip. and rigging ops. and how to acquire such equip. • Rescue Systems 1 or equivalent

  12. Heavy Operation Level • Meet the Medium Ops. Level and have RS- II or equivalent training • Knowledge of the use and operation of equipment for cutting, breaching, lifting, and moving components of steel and reinforced concrete structures

  13. Four Phases of StructuralCollapse Rescue

  14. Phase ISize up and Recon • Depending on event can last few minutes to several hours • Find out how big the problem is • Organized Survey of the damaged area • What resources are available • What can we do about the problem

  15. Prioritize the problems • First priority is yourself • Second is you family and co-worker • Third is other people • Fourth is property • Prioritization allows you to determine which problems to solve first

  16. Establish Command and Control • Designate a command spot • Remain available by staying in the command post

  17. Rescue and remove surface victims • 50% of all survivors are surface victims- injured but not trapped, Deal with them first • Remove them from the hazards • Keep people from entering structures, allow structures time to settle • Organize spontaneous rescue teams and direct them where they will do the most good

  18. Phase II • Begins when rescue teams arrive and ICS has been established • Use info. gathered to search the likely survival places • Use location methods, searching outside by voice, listening devices, dogs, heat sensing and fiber optics

  19. Phase II (cont.) • Search the voids as a last resort • Enter those voids that have highest likelihood of survivors • Shore as you go • Monitor for hazards • 30% of all survivors in Structural collapse are involved in non structural entrapment

  20. Phase III • Starts after all surface victims are removed and cared for and those in voids can removed without major debris removal • Selective debris removal using heavy equipment , trained rescue teams working with private contractors • Removal of entombed victims

  21. Phase IV • Usually 5-6 days after event • Probability of further survivors is minimal, and private contractors will usually finish clean up

  22. Search

  23. Type of Search • Physical Search • Canine Search • Technical Search • Use all three for the most complete search

  24. Search Markings

  25. Building Construction Types and Characteristics

  26. Light Frame Building Collapse

  27. Light Frame Building Collapse • Residential homes and apartments • Highly susceptible to fires • Complete collapses occur frequently • Rescuers look for badly cracked walls, leaning walls, offset of structure from foundation, or leaning first story

  28. Heavy Wall Unreinforced Masonry (URM)

  29. Heavy Wall Unreinforced Masonry (URM) • One to six stories high, residential, commercial, industrial, or institutional • Principle weekess in lateral strength • Partial collapse is most common • Rescuers check for loose/broken parapet walls, connections between walls and floor, unsupported and partially collapsed floors

  30. Heavy WallTilt-Up/Reinforced Masonry

  31. Heavy WallTilt-Up/Reinforced Masonry • One to five stories • Usually industrial/commercial • Weakness is between walls and floors or roofs. Walls fall away from floor/roof • Rescuers check connection of walls and roofs/floors, and connection between beams and columns

  32. Heavy Floor Building

  33. Heavy Floor Building • Residential, commercial, industrial • Concrete frames up to 12 stories • Includes concrete highway bridges • Weakness is poor column reinforcement, and connection between floor and column • May fail partially or completely, and potential laterally

  34. Types of Collapse Voids

  35. Lean-To Void

  36. Lean-To Void

  37. V-Type Collapse Void

  38. Pancake Void

  39. Cantilever Void

  40. Shoring • Vertical Shores • T-Shore (Spot shore) • Window and Door shores • Laced Posts • Cribbing

  41. Shoring • Lateral Shores • Trench Shore • Wood Horizontal Shores • Hydraulic Trench Shore • One-Sided Trench Shore • Raker Shores

  42. “T” Spot Shore • Used as a temporary shore to initially stabilize damaged floors • Weight needs to be directed over the shore • Header is kept short to minimize tipping • 4x4 Douglas Fir is the most common wood • 3 foot max. header unless 18” Gussets are used

  43. Nail Patterns for “T” shore • 2x4 material uses 16b nails • ¾” Plywood uses 8b nails 4x4 Header No longer than 3 foot 4x4 post 3/4 “ Gusset 12”x12” 2x4 Cleat

  44. Window and Door Shores • Usually installed in an entry point for intended for rescue personnel • Shore both Vertically and Horizontally • Requires one inch of thickness for every foot of horizontal opening

  45. Safety

  46. Categories of Hazards

  47. Structural Instability • Weakened Floors, walls, roofs, beams and columns • Free standing walls • Spalling of Concrete structure, masonry • Shifting of debris from aftershocks, vibrations or secondary collapse • Attached buildings can be an exposure, or weakened by collapse

  48. Overhead Hazards • Loosened debris and unstable building structures overhead • Low hanging power lines • Building contents that are unstable and displaced • Failing slings or cables whiles lifting material

  49. Surface Hazards