Vindicating Chat Integrating Chat into the EFL Classroom Rita Zeinstejer email@example.com
Almeida de Eca: “a two way synchronous form of CMC, a dialogue in real time as we keyboard or speak our words...” • Vance Stevens: “using chat in a learning environment is a meaningful and constructivist experience” • “....it´s communication with real people in real time which enhances LL, since it’s human interaction, discussion and collaboration leading to new knowledge..” • Allen & Guy called Chat “ interactive written discourse” • Dafne Gonzalez: “chats can also be used to improve different aspects of our teaching practice....”
Synchronous CMC Tools: Chat Rooms and how to use them for Language Learning • 1-pedagogical rationale for using chat rooms as a language learning tool • 2-reasons for using chat/ difficulties for students • 3-modes and types • 4-chatiquette • 5-Taxonomy of Educational Chats for ESL/EFL • 5-possible projects and activities • 6-resources • 7-conclusions/ suggestions • 8-where to find chat rooms. • (show transp Sow Train Coming)
Pedagogical Rationale • allows learners to interact in authentic contexts with native speakers • allows students to use language learnt, with a real purpose • allows communication to take place in real time • favours joint products • chat activities promote active involvement • teacher role minimized: promotes learner autonomy • transcripts generated: useful for studying language used • studies suggest chatting improves interactive competence: helps bring stds closer together • students can notice language used by native speakers • opportunities for skills development & practice • provides natural space for negotiation of meaning, due to immediacy of feedback • brings up issues of turn-taking and classroom management • involves special language features (RUOK) & “emoticons”
Reasons for using Chatrooms withStudents • Motivation: genuine audience, sense of purpose • Synchronous communication • Authenticity • Alternative • Extra-curricular practice • Exploitation • Native speakers • Culture • Vocabulary • Anonymity • Translation • Responsibility • Flexibility • Keyboard skills/ learning technology • Social skills • Feedback: support and confidence
more reasons... • text chat: practise writing and reading skills • voice chat: practise pronunciation • audio chat: practise listening comprehension (See Tr Chatlog)
Three modes: • Text • Audio (voice) • Video (image)
Types of Chat Rooms: • text based : AOL IM, WM, Net Meeting, MSN Messenger, YM . • avatar based http://php.indiana.edu/~braspark/avatar/ • audio: YM, Paltalk, iVisit, MSN Messenger. Wimba: http://wimba.com/ iVisit: http://www.ivisit.info/ Paltalk: http://www.paltalk.com/paltalk10/ • video : YM, WM (1 to 1), iVisit (Multiparty) • Moos, Muds, Mushes
Three Communication Environments • Instant messaging • Conferences (Baltimore) • Chat groups
Pre-established User-created public private Types:
Difficulties: types • Technical • Session management • Students´ participation • Language
technical • incompatibilities between operating systems • YM: dial up connections in “3 in 1” mode • server error messages • slow response/ download/ temporary hang-ups/ disconnection • BUT: attempt: a lesson in itself!
Session management • Time: pre-program session • Number of participants in different chatrooms • Check students get passwords and usernames • Rehearsal session advisable
Students´participation • slow keyboard skills • culture specific • topics: inappropriate/ unfamiliar/ offensive: misunderstandings • quick text reading ability
Language level • use of slang, abbreviations, oversimplified, instant-messaging type, “block language” • exposure to badly constructed English • poor structure: informal • no capital letters • cybershock: raise awareness
Caveats to joining public chatrooms: • Many are pornographic • It is time-consuming
Chatiquette • Don’t talk in capital letters • Never scroll the screen • Don’t join a chatroom/ leave without saying sth • Don’t idle or lurk in a chatroom (brb) • Be patient • Don’t use excessive colours • Avoid sarcasm, ambiguous humour and expressions; no flaming • Ask if you are welcome • Be friendly. Be polite. Be considerate
To consider: • Teacher or teacher free? Moderator? • Corrections? • Group or P2P? • Level • Usernames • Time zones • Transcripts
Moderating Rules Responsibilities:knowledgeable, reliable, helpful, supportive, extra sensitive Time: shift focus/ fire subtopics Motivation: keep ball rolling Error correction Assessment of performance Participating Rules Behaviour Multitasking Language used Turn-taking Rules
Ways to use educational Chats • Office/school hours • Groups discussion outside the classroom • Students: synchronous communication with other EFL students around the world. • Teachers: synchronous communication with other language teachers (Daf’s DB/ recorded tape from Damian)
Pre-Chat Activities • 1- learning how chat rooms work, how to post a message, benefits of chat rooms, some useful chat room vocab • 2- using chat rooms to ask and answer questions among classmates, printing transcript and improving questioning • 3- interviewing the teacher to improve language, using transcript • 4- playing “guess who” among classmates • 5- series of regular practice sessions: in advance mail topics/ questions, to prepare, gather ideas, vocab.
Practice sessions aim to • get familiar with chat room vocabulary, and use all relevant functions • gain confidence in asking/ answering questions • use tools and dictionaries • use chat transcripts to identify language problems and improve their English: edit, analyse, rewrite, report. • draw a line between different registers
Possible projects (classroom preparation)“educational chatting should have clearly defined product-oriented goals...”(Westhoff) • Surveys • Tests, Questionnaires, Quizzes, Puzzles • Role-plays (“The Personal Interview”: form with blanks) • Topic Discussions (email topics in advance: Taiwanese) • Info gap activities ( Festivals – Celebrations) • Describe/Draw a Picture (Groupboard) • As practice tool (stds start a room: interplay of linguistic competence) • Asan interview medium • Mixed, combined tasks (Daf’s chat with video)
Mixed task 4 groups to 4 chatrooms Same topic – controversial Precise instructions Appoint summarizer Post summaries in D. Board Allow for open discussion Role-play With/ without f2f preparation *Problem at school *Accident scene more tasks
Follow-up tasks • Grammar: errors • Vocabulary: idioms, synonyms, M. Matching • Functional Language • Writing: reports, editing, letter-writing, project work
Participation Assessment?Educational Chat Classification*Dafne Gonzalez
Correction......,useful...? • Syntactical, lexical errors? “embedding” correction/ repair • Participation: interactive competence, empathy, attention in role of listeners, strategic competence for self-repair, circumlocution • Staying on topic • Collaborative tasks: one-at-a-time correction strategy, polishing printed interview.
Chats in Teacher Development • Sharing work done • Exploring web tools • Practising e-moderation with students • Participating in online conferences as audience/ participants ( NETWorking 2002) • Planning events/ joint projects
Conclusions- suggestions:for you, the teacher • Become experienced: join a chat room yourself • Choose a user-friendly virtual place • Decide on common interests, topics and distribution of tasks. • Assign a clear, precise activity. • Be clear about due dates and times • Ensure stds have the necessary computer skills • Have a virtual class rehearsal before “chat day” with foreign groups • Keep ongoing communication
Resources • enough computers • fast Internet connection • networked printer • projection device (preferably) • make sure you are familiar with chat room you will use. Try <www.bravenet.com>
Where to find chat rooms • most search engines: YM, Net Meeting, MSN Messenger • http://aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/links/ • http://englishclub.net/search/ • http://eslcafe.com/search/ • EFL/ESL stds chatroom: http://chat.englishclub.com • to find other teachers to set up exchange chats: http://www.englishclub.net/cgi-bin/e-friends/tt.pl • tandem learning: www.etandemlearning.com
“Language is communication. The purpose of learning a language is, for most people, to use it to communicate. And why communicate? Most immediately, you have something you want to say or you meet someone you want to understand. The language you want and need to learn the most is that part of the language that helps you to meet your immediate needs.” Vance Stevens
Bibliography - “Internet Audio Communication for Second Langauge Learning: a Comparative Review of Six Programs” , Gary A. Cziko and Sujunk Park - “How can Instructors and Administrators Fill the Missing Link in Online Instruction?”, Thelma J. Roberson and Jack Klotz. - “Educational Chat Classification”, Dafne Gonzalez - “To Chat or not to Chat in the EFL Classroom, that is the Question!”, Teresa Almeida d'Eça - “A Taxonomy of Educational Chats for EFL/ESL”, Dafne Gonzalez “Webheads in the Action”, Dafne Gonzalez, http://dafnegon.tripod.com/wia/doingwhat.htm - “Educational Chat: Chat and the ESL Class (presentation) - John H. Steele (2001) - “Rubric for Group Chat Meeting”, Dafne Gonzalez - Introducing EFL Students to Chat Rooms - Jo Mynard (2002) - “ Some CMC clients promoting language learning through chatting online”, Vance Stevens - Giving Exams in an Online Chat Room - Janet K. M. Marta (Jan. 2002) - “Chat and the Language Learning Process”, Teresa Almeida d´Eca - “Constructing Knowledge with Technology”, Martha Boethel and K. Victoria Dimock. - “A day in the life of an online language educator,” Stevens, V. 2002. - “Writing for Webheads: An online writing course utilizing synchronous chat and student web pages,” Stevens, Vance, 1999. - Webheads Communities: Writing Tasks Interleaved with Synchronous Online Communication and Web Page Development”, Stevens, V.