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Inventory Management

Inventory Management

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Inventory Management

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  1. Inventory Management Chapter 13

  2. Learning Objectives • You should be able to: • Define the term inventory, list the major reasons for holding inventories, and list the main requirements for effective inventory management • Explain periodic and perpetual review systems • Explain the objectives of inventory management • Describe the A-B-C approach and explain how it is useful • Describe the basic EOQ model and its assumptions and solve typical problems • Describe the economic production quantity model and solve typical problems • Describe the quantity discount model • Describe reorder point models • Describe situations in which the single-period model would be appropriate, and solve typical problems Instructor Slides

  3. Inventory • Inventory • A stock or store of goods • Independent demand items • Items that are ready to be sold or used • A “typical” firm (on “typical” times) has roughly 30% of its current assets and as much as 90% of its working capital invested in inventory 13-3

  4. Types of Inventory • Raw materials and purchased parts • Work-in-process (WIP) = partially completed goods • Finished goods inventories (manufacturing) or merchandise (retail) • Maintenance and repairs (MRO) inventory • Goods-in-transit to warehouses or customers (pipeline inventory) 13-4

  5. Inventory • Inventories are a vital part of business: • necessary for operations • contribute to customer satisfaction • But • Costly • May have limited shelf-life • Carrier may have limited space 13-5

  6. Functions of Inventory • To meet anticipated demand • “anticipation stock” • To smooth production requirements • seasonal demand • To permit operations • Work-In-Process • To decouple operations • buffer between successive operations in case of a breakdown • To protect against stock-outs • Delayed deliveries or increase in demand • To take advantage of order cycles • minimize purchasing and holding costs or economies of producing in large quantities • To help hedge against price increases • To take advantage of quantity discounts

  7. Inventory Costs • Purchase cost • The amount paid to buy the inventory • Holding (carrying) costs • Cost to carry an item in inventory for a length of time, usually a year (rent, equipment, materials, labor, insurance, security, interest and other direct expenses). • Ordering costs • Costs of ordering and receiving inventory • Setup costs (Analogous to ordering costs) • The costs involved in preparing equipment for a job • Shortage costs • Costs resulting when demand exceeds the supply of inventory; often unrealized profit per unit • Lead time • Time interval between ordering and receiving the order 13-7

  8. Objectives of Inventory Control • The overall objective of inventory management is to achieve: • Satisfactory levels of customer service • Having the right goods available in the right quantity in the right place at the right time • Focus on size and timing • While keeping inventory costs (ordering and carrying) within reasonable bounds (minimize) 13-8

  9. Objectives of Inventory Control • Measures of performance: • Customer satisfaction • Number and quantity of backorders • Customer complaints • Inventory turnover = (average) cost of goods sold (average) inventory investment during a period 13-9

  10. Inventory Management • Management has two basic functions concerning inventory: • Establish a system for tracking items in inventory • Make decisions about • When to order • How much to order 13-10

  11. ABC Classification System • A-B-C approach • Classifying inventory according to some measure of importance, and allocating control efforts accordingly • A items (very important) • 10 to 20 percent of the number of items in inventory • about 60 to 70 percent of the annual dollar value • B items (moderately important) • C items (least important) • 50 to 60 percent of the number of items in inventory but • only about 10 to 15 percent of the annual dollar value 13-11

  12. ABC Classification System • How to classify? • For each item, multiply annual volume by unit price to get the annual dollar value. • Arrange annual values in descending order. • A items: the few with the highest annual dollar value C items: the most with the lowest dollar value. B items: those in between 13-12

  13. Inventory Counting Systems • Periodic System (e.g. small retailer) • Physical count of items in inventory made at periodic intervals • Many items ordered at the same time. Savings in processing and shipping of orders. vs. • Lack of control between reviews. Having to keep extra stock to protects against shortages. • Perpetual Inventory System (e.g. bank transactions) • System that keeps track of removals from inventory continuously, thus monitoring current levels of each item • An order is placed when inventory drops to a predetermined minimum level (can optimize Q) Vs. • Added cost of record keeping. Usually has to be accompanied by a periodic physical count. • Note: RFID technology is used by inventory counting systems 13-13

  14. Inventory Ordering Models • Economic Order Quantity models: • identify the optimal order quantity • by minimizing total annual costs that vary with order size and frequency • The basic Economic Order Quantity model (EOQ) • The Economic Production Quantity model (EPQ) • The Quantity Discount model* • Other Models • Reorder Point Ordering* (uncertainty, when to order) • Fixed-Order-Interval Model* • Single Period model (perishable items) 13-14

  15. Basic Economic Order Quantity Model • The basic EOQ model: • used to find a fixed order quantity that will minimize total annual inventory costs • Purchase price is not included (cost is unaffected by it) • Assumptions: • Only one product is involved • Annual demand requirements are known • Demand is even throughout the year • Lead time does not vary • Each order is received in a single delivery • There are no quantity discounts 13-15

  16. Profile of Inventory Level Over Time Q Usage rate Quantity on hand Reorder point Time Place order Receive order Receive order Receive order Place order Lead time The Inventory Cycle (EOQ) 13-16

  17. Total Annual Cost Average number of units in inventory Number of orders 13-17

  18. Goal: Total Cost Minimization The Total-Cost Curve is U-Shaped Annual Cost Holding Costs Ordering Costs Order Quantity (Q) QO (optimal order quantity) 13-18

  19. Deriving EOQ Length of order cycle = Q/D Number of orders = D/Q • The total cost curve reaches its minimum where the carrying and ordering costs are equal. Using calculus, we take the derivative of the total cost function and set the derivative (slope) equal to zero and solve for Q. 13-19

  20. Example • Tire distributer • D (Demand)=9,600 tires per year • H (Holding cost)=$16 per unit per year • S (Ordering cost) = $75 per order

  21. Example • Tire distributer • D (Demand)=9,600 tires per year • H (Holding cost)=$16 per unit per year • S (Ordering cost) = $75 per order • Q0=300 tires • TCmin = 4,800 • TC curve relatively flat at optimum

  22. Economic Production Quantity (EPQ) • The batch mode is widely used in production. In certain instances, the capacity to produce a part exceeds its usage (demand rate) • Assumptions • Only one item is involved • Annual demand requirements are known • Usage rate is constant • Usage occurs continually, but production occurs periodically • The production rate is constant • Lead time does not vary • There are no quantity discounts Instructor Slides

  23. EPQ: Inventory Profile Q Production and usage Usage only Production and usage Usage only Production and usage Qp Cumulative production Imax Amount on hand Time Instructor Slides

  24. EPQ – Total Cost Solution: Instructor Slides

  25. Example • Toy manufacturer makes rubber wheels for dump truck toys. • D=48,000 wheels per year • S=$45 • H=$1 per wheel per year • P=800 wheels per day • u=200 wheels per day Instructor Slides

  26. Quantity Discount Model • Take into account quantity discount offered by supplier (add purchase cost to model) • Quantity discount • Price reduction for larger orders offered to customers to induce them to buy in large quantities Instructor Slides

  27. Quantity Discounts* The total-cost curve with quantity discounts is composed of a portion of the total-cost curve for each price Adding PD does not change EOQ Instructor Slides

  28. Reorder Point Ordering • Reorder-Point • When the quantity on hand of an item drops to this amount (quantity-trigger), the item is reordered. • Determinants of the Reorder-Point • The rate of demand • The lead time • The extent of demand and/or lead time variability • The degree of stockout risk acceptable to management 13-28

  29. Safety Stock* Instructor Slides

  30. Fixed-order-interval (FOI) model • Fixed-order-interval (FOI) model • Orders are placed at fixed time intervals • Reasons for using the FOI model • Supplier’s policy may encourage its use • Grouping orders from the same supplier can produce savings in shipping costs • Some circumstances do not lend themselves to continuously monitoring inventory position Instructor Slides

  31. Fixed-Quantity (ROP) vs. Fixed-Interval Ordering* Fixed Quantity Fixed Interval Instructor Slides

  32. Single-Period Model • Single-period model • Model for ordering of perishables and other items with limited useful lives • Period = life of the good. • Items are not carried over to the next period • The goal of the single-period model is to identify the order quantity that will minimize the long-run excess and shortage costs • Two categories of problems: • Demand can be characterized by a continuous distribution • Demand can be characterized by a discrete distribution 13-32

  33. Single-Period Model • Shortage cost • Generally, the unrealized profit per unit • Cshortage = Cs = Revenue per unit – Cost per unit • Excess cost • Different between purchase cost and salvage value of items left over at the end of the period • Cexcess = Ce = Cost per unit – Salvage value per unit 13-33

  34. Continuous Stocking LevelsUniform Demand • Service Level = probability that demand will not exceed the stocking level (S). • Shortage: Demand > S0 • Excess: Demand < S0 Ce Cs Service level Quantity So Balance Point So =Optimum Stocking Quantity Like a Seesaw, leverage If demand is not uniformly distributed, consider cumulative probability of demand So=min+SL*(max-min) 13-34

  35. Continuous Stocking LevelsUniform Demand • Sweet cider delivered to bar • Demand uniformly distributed between 300 and 500 liters/week. • Cost=20 cent/liter • Revenue = 80 cent/liter. • Ce= • cost-salvage =.2 $/liter • Cs= • revenue-cost =.8-.2=.6 $/liter • SL= • Cs/(Cs+Ce) =.6/(.6+.2)=.75 • So= • min+SL*(max-min) =300+.75*(500-300)=450 liter • Stockout risk = • 1-SL = 1- .75=.25 Ce=.2 $/liter Cs=.6 $/liter Service level=75% So=450 Balance Point 500 300 13-35

  36. Discrete Stocking Levels • Cs/(Cs+Ce) may not coincide with a feasible stocking level. • Solution: Stock at the next higher level so that the desired service level is equaled or exceeded. 13-36

  37. Discrete Stocking Levels • Discrete • p = $5.5 • v= $0 • c= $2 • SL= Cs/(Cs+Ce)= (p-c)/[(p-c)+(c-v)] = (5.5-2)/[(5.5-2)+(2-0)] = 3.5/(3.5+2)= .636 • Q=13

  38. Discrete Stocking Levels • Shortage (downtime) cost = $4,200 • Excess (spare part) cost = $200 • SL = = 4200/(4200+200) = .84 • Next level - > 2 spare parts 90% will not run out of spare parts 13-38

  39. Operations Strategy* • Too much inventory: • Costly to maintain • Tends to hide problems (easier to live with problems than to eliminate them) • Wise strategy = find ways to • Improve demand forecasts = reduce safety stock • Improve inventory management • Reduce Ordering costs • Reduce inventory Holding costs • Reduce variation (e.g., lead-time) • Lean Operations • Supply-Chain Management