Renewable Energy and Rural Development in Myanmar Melia Hanoi, Hanoi Vietnam 20th,November,2012
Contents • Country Data • Energy Sector of Myanmar • Renewable Energy and Rural Development in Myanmar • CDM Possibilities • Conclusion
Republic The Union of Myanmar Location: Latitude 9° 32’ – 28° 31’ N Longitude 92° 10’ – 101° 11’ E Land wise North to South 2,060 Km East to West 945 Km Area: 67.65 million-hectares (676,577 sq km) Population 59.78 million Growth rate 1.84% Rural population 69% North China East Thailand and Laos PDR West India and Bangladesh South Thailand
Energy Sector of Myanmar • Oil and Gas Sub-sector -Ministry of Energy • Electric Power Sector -Ministry of Electric Power • Biomass (Fuel wood) Sector -Ministry of Forestry • Coal Sub-sector -Ministry of Mines • Renewable Energy -Ministry of Science &Technology
Policy for Energy Development • Energy Development • Increase Self-Sufficiency • Promote the utilization of renewable energy • Prevent deforestation caused by excessive use of fuel wood and charcoal
Goals for Renewable Energy Development • To minimize the country’s reliance on imported fuels. • To create alternative markets for agricultural commodities. • To ensure both food and energy security. • To increase in rural employment • To develop small and medium industries through benefits from emerging bio-energy opportunities. • To reduce the environmental pollution on local, regional and global scale. • To sustain environmental conditions. • To reduce the poverty in rural area
Renewable Energy and Rural Development in Myanmar • Solar Energy • Wind Energy • Hydropower • Tidal Energy in Myanmar • Biomass Energy - Biogas - Rice Husk Gasifier - Biofuel
Solar Energy • Sun shine all year round, especially in the Central Myanmar Dry Zone Area • Potential available solar energy of Myanmar is around 51973.8 TWh per year • Salt industry and other dry food industries are conventionally applied at commercial scale • Research and innovation of solar heating systems are carrying out by some private entrepreneurs, NGOs and departmental concern • Solar water heater application in cold areas and hotels has been found to be extensive through out the country
Establishment of - village domestic water supply system (more than 75 stations) - vaccine refrigeration system (about 400 units) at remote appeared in Myanmar around 2007. • Market potential for SPV modules is high in Myanmar. • SPV modules imported from Singapore, Thailand, China, India and Japan are commonly available Myanmar market.
Wind Energy • Potentially available Wind Energy of 360.1 Wh per year (NEDO of Japan performed in 1997 ) • Promising areas to harness wind energy are in three regions - Hilly Regions of Chin and Shan states - Coastal regions in the south and western part of the country - Central part of Myanmar. • Wind power potential in Myanmar is relatively low and irregular
Only a very few small wind generators are used in lower part of the country. • 300-600 W capacity are available in private market and mostly are imported from China. • Individual scale of water-pumping, wind mill & generate electricity in rural area.
Chaung Thar Hybrid Power Supply System Project • Objective: Demonstrative research on a grid-connected PV systems • NEWJEC, INC • Dept. of Electric Power, MOEP • US$ 5 million
ChaungThar Hybrid Power Supply System Project • Street lighting contributing to the safer environment during the night • Night lighting contributing to the extension of villagers’ economic and productive activities • Clinic lighting, more vaccine refrigeration and more power for medical equipment usage • Approx. 98.8 ton of carbon dioxide reduction in a year
Hydropower Hydropower Resources in Myanmar
Micro-hydro Energy • Myanmar has abundant small hydro potentials • Turbine manufacturing and installation technology. • The small hydro potential, nearly 60 sites suitable for small hydro (170 MW in total potential output). • Up to 2008, 33 small hydro power projects were generating (35.97MW) • Village Hydros (<50kW) and turbine generator installations of 1 kW or less in hilly regions.
Tidal Energy • Myanmar has more than 2800 km of coastline with numerous small creeks suitable for harnessing the tidal energy • available for electrification of rural remote villages Tidal Energy Project (Kanbalar) Village, Ayeyarwaddy Division in Myanmar Site Location Name of Village - Kanbalar Township - Ngapu-daw, Pathein, Ayeyarwaddy Division House hold /Population - 220 / 1200 Distance from National Grid - 150 km
Biomass Energy Source Materials - Agricultural Wastes - Energy Crops - Industrial Wastes - Municipal Solid Wastes - Animal Wastes
Biogas Types of Biogas Plant • Plant with movable gasholder • Plant with built-in (fixed dome) gasholder Uses of Biogas • Cooking • Lighting • Preservation of grains • Preparation of fodder • Drive internal combustion engine
Availability of Animal Dungs • Agriculture-based country, so many cattle and goats in central Myanmar Regione specially Nay Pyi Taw, Mandalay, Sagaing, Magway, Ayeyarwaddy Division, and Shan, Kayah, Kachin State. • On the average, the dung dropping of a medium size animal is estimated at 10 kg/day capable of producing 0.5 m3 biogas • The availability of Animal dung in Myanmar is shown in the following table.
Biogas utilization since 1980 and in 1983 (867 floating type biogas plant, family size digesters, 134 townships, floating type biogas plant ). Biogas is mainly used for cooking and lighting • Requirement of the intensive maintenance, and short life-time of the floating drum • For the plan period 2001-2005, YTU under the MOST, the dissemination of biogas technology for rural development • About 100 Nos. of cow in a village, approximately 50m3 of biogas can be provided by 50m3 in size, fixed dome type biogas plant.
Since 2002, community size biogas digesters for village electrification have been constructed and utilized in Central region - Mandalay, Sagaing, Magway Region and Northern Shan State. • These digesters are 25, 50, 100 cubic meter in size, Fixed Dome Type electricity producing biogas plants with installed capacity of 5-15 KW, serving 177 villages with 4 hours per day of electricity.
Constructed and Using Biogas Plants in States and Regions, 2012
All houses, monasteries and streets (two hours in the early mornings and four hours in the evenings). • In 2009, 26 Nos of 6-12 cubic meter size of family-sized, fixed dome type biogas digester has been developed by biogas project group and utilized in integrated farming system.
50m3 in size, MMO model Fixed Dome Type Biogas Plant is about 60,00,000 Kyats including the cost of 25HP, 15 KVA engine • Supposed to be 300 houses in a village, each household will have to pay 600 Kyats/month for one fluorescence tube, 1,50,000 Kyats can be collected in all and the investment of biogas plant will be covered with in three or four years.
Stimulating Agricultural Production • Animal excreta, crop stalks, vegetable waste and leaves become thoroughly decomposed after fermentation when sealed airtight in these biogas pits. • Their nitrogen content is transformed into ammonia, which is easier for plants to absorb, and therefore improve the fertilizer.
Biomass Producer Gas Rice – Husk Gasifier Gasification Gasifier
Rice is the main farm product and is mass-produced (22 million tons of rice are produced annually) • A large sum of rice husks are excreted in rice mills (produced all year round due to continuous operation) • Some rice mills use rice husks as fuel to generate steam for steam engines • Rice mills using motors or diesel engines ( so produce surplus rice husks)
Biofuels • To produce biodiesel at the community level by using small scale biodiesel plants • Driving single cylinder agriculture machines and water pumps are presented • The Government’s Guidance for The Development of The Bio-diesel Production • Increase Palm plantation in available land (existing production is 5800 metric ton of crude palm from 166,204 acres = 67261 hectare). • To promote Physic nut / Jatropha / Castrol Oil plantation and achieve 8 million acres (3.24 million hectare) within (2005-2011) years. • To encourage the private sector participation.
Biodiesel Production of Biodiesel from Jatropha curcasOil with Methanol and with Ethanol BIODIESEL Pilot Plant of Boidiesel Processor 60 Liter/Day 30 gal / day capacity Biodiesel Pilot Plant
CDM Possibilities • CDM Projects are new to Myanmar. • No Project had been accomplished. - Waste Heat Recovery Projects in Power Industry (Gas Turbines), Cement Industry, Petroleum Industry etc…. - RE Power Generation – Biomass Gasifier Biogas Plants - Waste to Energy Projects - Industrial wastes - Distilleries, Beverage Industry, Starch and Chemical Industry etc.) - MSW to Energy – Yangon, Mandalay and State and Division Level Towns. - Fossil Fuel Displacement Project – Steam generation by Biomass Energy (Rice Husk, Wood Chips) - Energy Efficiency and Consecration (EE&C) Projects. - Teak and Energy Plantations, Mangrove Replanting. accumulate for sizable power output.
Conclusion • Myanmar possesses the full potential of RE development in almost every sector. Main potential areas are Hydropower and Biomass Energy. • Myanmar has abundant renewable energy sources. • Solar, Wind, Geothermal and Oceanic Energy potentialities can also be exploited. • Large-scale hydro electric power will surely continue to be developed as a main power source • Micro hydropower development will also continue for electrifying small villages. • Solar power, due to its high cost, but good potential for community size projects. • Wind power, it has a poor prospect since favorable sites for wind power generation are very few, but can be used with solar system in hybrid applications.
Biogas production from municipal and agricultural waste and to disseminate the Biogas Technology in order to implement the low cost family size biogas plant for cooking and lighting in rural area. • More development works with appropriate technologies are required in renewable energy application. • The Electrification rate of Myanmar is currently around (26)% and this ratio must be (60)% in the year 2020. Within (8)years Myanmar must add (34)% more to the electricity generation. The present national installed capacity is around (3494)MW. So Myanmar needs total installed capacity of (8063)MW in the year 2020. It needs to increase (4.25)% or (571)MW annually. This is for the total electricity sector and RE may be (20)% of this capacity. So RE sector must generate electricity of (114)MW annually starting from 2012 to 2020 (Excluding Large Hydropower Projects Public, Private or PPP).
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