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The Age of Religious Wars 1559-1689

The Age of Religious Wars 1559-1689

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The Age of Religious Wars 1559-1689

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  1. Wars of Religion Wars of Religion: general French Religious Wars The Age of Religious Wars 1559-1689

  2. RELIGIOUS WARS General Information

  3. 1562-1598 French civil wars • Philip II Crusade • Dutch revolt against Philip II • Thirty Years’ War 1618-48 • English Civil War • Puritan revolution 1640-1660 • Glorious Revolution 1688-89

  4. The two main crusaders:John Calvin and St. Ignatius Loyola • Calvinists seized control of Scotland, northern provinces of the the Low Countries, temporarily England, France, Germany, Poland, and Hungary • Catholics controlled Flanders, France, Austria, Spain, and Bohemia

  5. 1559 Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis between Phillip II of Spain and Henry II of France • French gave up claims to Italy; Spain stopped trying to dismember France • Habsburg victory; Valois lose • But started a new era of warfare neither country could handle • Calvinists and Catholics both ‘conservatives’ - no religious deviation would be tolerated in Christendom

  6. Both sides recognized new secular forces changing Europe a) overseas expansionb) commercial capitalismc) dynastic rivalryd) nationalisme) state sovereignty • It would be the last medieval crusade and the first modern war

  7. Calvin died in 1564, the Council of Trent ended in 1563, Loyola died in 1556 • People no longer mediated disputes • The Roman Inquisition and the Index of Prohibited Books kept Catholics ‘pure’ • The Consistory of Geneva kept Calvinists ‘pure’

  8. Personalities • Radical Catholics • Charles V (HRE): Charles I (Spain) • Philip II (Spain) • Mary I Tudor (England) • Protestants • Edward VI (England) • Moderates • Elizabeth I (England) • Henry IV of Navarre (France)

  9. Political • The political trend during this time was toward centralized, authoritarian state. • New Monarchy influence… • Opened with Phillip II of Spain and ended with Louis XIV of France • It was an era of absolutism, but not for the Dutch or the English

  10. Economic • It was an era of great inflation and the development of mercantilism • Exploration & influx of gold/silver • Amsterdam became the commercial center of Europe

  11. Intellectual & Art • There was an intellectual Revolution in mathematics, physics, and astronomy • It was the age of Galileo, Descartes, and Newton • Scientific Revolution • It was the period of the Baroque of great art and theater, of Shakespeare and Molière

  12. Social • Western capitalism v’s Eastern agriculture • Spain, France, England, Holland all improved, Holy Roman Empire, Poland, Ottoman Empire all deteriorated • Propertied v’s the propertyless

  13. French Wars of Religion 1562-1598 • French collapse had many reasons:a) Huguenots and Catholicsb) Aristocracy and the Crownc) Bourgeoisie and political rightsd) Paris mobe) Riots in the provinces • BUT religion triggered the crisis

  14. Catherine de’Medici • Francis I (1515-1547)Henry II (1547-59)Francis II (1559-60)Charles IX (1560-74)Henry III (1574-89) • 1516 Concordat of Bologna - French bishops and abbots nominated by the monarch • The king was not all-powerful, he lacked money • Opposition began during the reign of Henry II • 3 opponents: Guise, Montmorency, Bourbon

  15. Montmorency was very wealthy • Bourbons claimed the throne through blood • Guise - strongest group - ultra-Catholic • Henry II was killed at a tournament in 1559 at the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis, the throne went to his oldest son - Francis II • All the sons were dominated by their mother - Catherine de Medici • Catherine tried to reconcile the Huguenots and the Catholics like Elizabeth I had done

  16. The Catholics turned against her and supported the Guises • Guises controlled northern France, Paris and were helped by Phillip II of Spain who wanted to see France destroyed • Elizabeth of England supported the Huguenots • 1562 the Duke of Guise ordered his men to slaughter a group of praying Huguenots - starting the French religious wars • Killings mounted as both sides randomly killed any and all people

  17. For 10 years the killing continued - paid for by aristocrats who loved fighting • In 1572 a peace was declared so the Bourbon prince Henry of Navarre could marry the sister of the king Charles IX • The Guises saw this wedding as a disaster • Catherine de Medici, jealous of her sons, joined with the Guises • St Bartholomew’s day the Catholics ambushed the Huguenots in their beds • Prince Henry was allowed to live after promising to become Catholic

  18. Thousands of Huguenots were killed(The pope paid the messenger 100 gold coins) • King Charles was sick - the House of Valois was discredited and the Huguenots were still around • 1574 Charles died and was replaced by his neurotic brother Henry III • Catholics and Huguenots hated Henry and the fighting resumed • 1576 Henry of Guise formed the Holy League to destroy all Huguenots

  19. Prince Henry of Navarre, heir to the throne, renounced his Catholicism and led the Huguenots • The War of the Three HenriesGuise v’s Valois v’s Navarre • 1588 Phillip II order Guise to stage a riot in Paris to prevent the French from interfering with his Armada • The king fled the city and left Guise in charge, he forced the king to make him chief minister • But Phillip’s Armada was badly defeated and he was powerless to help Guise

  20. Henry III plotted to have Henry Guise assassinated • Henry III joined with Henry of Navarre to crush the Catholics, but III was also assassinated by a fanatical monk • Only Henry of Navarre was left • It took Henry 10 years to end the war because Philip kept trying to invade France from Flanders • 1598 Henry and Phillip made peace restoring the terms of 1559

  21. 1598 Henry issued the Edict of Nantes • declaring Catholicism the official religion of France • nobles could practice Protestantism in the privacy of their own houses • Huguenots could defend territory • Huguenots could hold minor positions • The French learned that a strong central government was the only answer to national problems - i.e. Absolute monarchy