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Goals PowerPoint Presentation

Goals

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Goals

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  1. Goals

  2. Questionnaire • Think about goals that are currently important to you and the specific things you will do to attain these goals.

  3. Questionnaire

  4. Goals • Goals influence. . . . . what you attend to what you think about what you do • Idiographic • Goals that are unique to an individual • “Get a date with Bob” • Nomothetic • Goals that are common in almost everyone • “Be loved by others”

  5. Markey, 2002 Goals Long-Term Nomothetic Experience love • Hierarchal Want a balance focused on goal types Find romantic partner Go to a party Buy nice clothes Short-Term Idiographic Get a job Call friends Take a shower

  6. Goals • Are there “basic” nomothetic goals? • Much research in this area is trying to reduce idographic goals into broader nomothetic goals • Like the Big-Five did with traits! • Kaiser “why” study • Markey and Ozer’s Agency and Communion • McClelland’s needs

  7. Nomothetic Goals • Markey & Ozer, 2002 • Agency • Focuses on personal achievement, independence, or mastery • Communion • Focuses on concerns about relationship and connections to others • Next to each goal write an “A”, “C”, or “N”

  8. Nomothetic Goals • 770 goals collected • Classified by subjects as agency or communion goals • Classified by judges as “type” of goal

  9. Agency Goals

  10. Communion Goals

  11. Putting it all together

  12. Judgment and Development goals • Judgment Goals • Goals that seek to judge or validate an attribute in oneself • e.g., “Make others know that I am the smartest one in the class” • Development Goals • Goals that attempt to improve once • e.g., “Become the smartest person in the class”

  13. Judgment and Development goals • Help determine how a person will react to failure F

  14. Judgment and Development goals • Judgment Goals • “Helpless pattern” pattern • Will not try harder….just conclude “I can’t do it” • Development Goals • “Mastery-oriented” pattern • Tries harder next time

  15. Judgment and Development goals • What caused these different goals to be set? • A stable characteristic (i.e., a trait)

  16. Questionnaire • You have a certain amount of intelligence and you really can’t do much to change it • Your intelligence is something about you that you can’t change very much • You can learn new things but you can’t really change your basic intelligence

  17. Entity and Incremental Theories • Entity Theory • Personal qualities are fixed an unchangeable • e.g., IQ, happiness, etc. • Incremental Theories • Personal qualities can change over time and with experience • e.g., IQ, happiness, etc.

  18. Putting it together Failure Helpless Pattern Judgment Goals Entity theory Developmental Goals Mastery-Oriented Pattern Incremental theory

  19. Contemporary Research

  20. During interpersonal interactions can a circle tell us how the behavior of one person affects the behavior of another person?

  21. Concrete examples

  22. Abstract examples

  23. Interpersonal Theory • Sullivan’s “reciprocal emotion” • An individual’s behavior is interrelated with the behavior of others • Leary’s complementarity • Interpersonal reflexes tend to initiate or invite reciprocal interpersonal responses from the “other” person in the interaction

  24. Interpersonal Circumplex

  25. Complementarity • Leary / Carson’s definition: • Opposite on dominance • Dominance induces submission and submission induces dominance • Same on warmth • Warmth induces warmth and coldness induces coldness

  26. Leary’s Orientation

  27. Strong et al.’s Orientation

  28. Myllyniemi's Orientation

  29. Wiggins’s Definition

  30. The Complementarity of Behaviors During Brief Interactions • 1) Do behaviors exhibited during dyadic interactions occur in a circular pattern? • 2) Does the behavior of one person in an interaction affect the behavior of the other person? • 3) Which model of complementarity predicts these behaviors best? Markey, Funder, & Ozer, 2003

  31. Method • Participates • 79 males; 79 females

  32. Tasks • Each participant interacted in three different situations with an opposite sex stranger

  33. Coding Behaviors • For each interaction, 64 social behaviors were coded by four different judges • e.g., “Speaks quickly” “Displays ambition” “Offers advice”

  34. Method • For each octant of the interpersonal circumplex 3 RBQ items were selected

  35. Warm-Agreeable • Exhibits social skills • Expresses warmth (to anyone) • Seems likeable

  36. Gregarious-Extraverted • Shows high enthusiasm and high energy levels. • Is talkative • Acts playful

  37. Assured-Dominant • Speaks in a loud voice • Tries to control the interaction • Dominates the interaction

  38. Arrogant-Calculating • Talks at rather than with partner (e.g., conducts a monolog, ignores what partner says) • Exhibits condescending behavior (acts as if self is superior to partner) • Emphasizes accomplishments of self, family, or housemates

  39. Cold-Hearted • Seems detached from the interaction • Expresses criticism (of anybody or anything) • Expresses hostility (to anyone or anything)

  40. Aloof-Introverted • Exhibits an awkward interpersonal style (e.g., mumble, have difficulty knowing what to say) • Shows physical signs of tension or anxiety (e.g., fidgets nervously, voice wavers) • Behaves in a fearful or timid manner

  41. Unassured-Submissive • Gives up when faced with obstacles • Expresses insecurity (e.g., seems touchy or overly sensitive) • Seeks reassurance from partner (e.g., asks for agreement, fishes for praise)

  42. Unassuming-Ingenuous • Is interested in what partner has to say • Expresses agreement frequently • Seeks advice from partner

  43. Results

  44. Unstructured Interaction

  45. Cooperative Interaction

  46. Competitive Interaction

  47. Results by Gender