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Observation Runs of TAMA300 Gravitational Wave Detector

Observation Runs of TAMA300 Gravitational Wave Detector

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Observation Runs of TAMA300 Gravitational Wave Detector

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  1. Observation Runs of TAMA300 Gravitational Wave Detector Masaki Ando Dept. of Physics, University of Tokyo TAMA collaboration Coalescence of a binary neutron stars Illustration/ KAGAYA XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  2. Abstract • Japanese activities for GW detection • TAMA • 7 year project (April 1995 – March 2002) • Construct a 300m interferometric detector : TAMA300 • Several data taking runs from 1999 • Data analysis results • Next project : LCGT • 3km cryogenic interferometer at Kamioka mine • Research and development tasks (April 2002 – March 2006) XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  3. Contents • Introduction • TAMA detector • Data taking runs with TAMA • Data analysis results • Recent results (Data Taking 8) • LCGT • Overview • Research and development tasks • Summary XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  4. Introduction (1)- Gravitational-wave astronomy - • Gravitational wave detectors • Bar detectors- network observation • Interferometric detector- finishing and starting observation • Future projects on the ground and in the space XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  5. Gravitational Waves Precise measurement by a laser interferometer (Mirrors behave as free masses) Michelson interferometer Introduction (2)- Detection method - • Gravitational waves (Coalescences of compact binaries, Stellar core collapses)  Change in distance between free masses (Strain about 10-18) XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  6. Introduction (3)- Michelson interferometer - • Michelson interferometer Detects optical-path difference caused by GWs Long arm length for higher sensitivity XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  7. Fabry-Perot cavity Front mirror Front mirror Fabry-Perot cavity Recycling mirror Introduction (4)- Interferometer configuration - • Some mirrors are added Sensitivity improvement • Power-recycled Fabry-Perot-Michelson interferometer (LIGO, VIRGO, TAMA) • Fabry-Perot cavity Effective arm length • Power recycling Enhance power in the interferometer End mirror End mirror Beamsplitter Laser source Photo detector XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  8. 300m 300m TAMA project (1)- overview - • TAMA project • Detect gravitational waves from local group of our galaxy • Research and development for a large-scale detector • Construct an interferometer named TAMA300 • Fabry-Perot-Michelson interferometer with 300m arms (with power recycling) • Target sensitivity h : 3x10-21 Aerial photograph of the TAMA site (NAOJ, Mitaka, Tokyo, JAPAN) XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  9. TAMA project (2)- Noise budget of TAMA300 - • Target sensitivity XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  10. Mirror suspension 300m vacuum duct FM2 Laser MC RM BS FM1 Fused silica mirror Center room TAMA project (3)- Photos - XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  11. Data taking runs (1)- Data taking runs with TAMA300 - XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  12. Data taking runs (2)- DT6 observation summary - • TAMA data taking 6 (DT6) • 50 days’ observation(August 1 – September 20, 2001) • Phase I configuration (without power recycling) • Sufficient sensitivity and stability for GW events in our Galaxy • SNR of 30for 1.4-1.4 Msolar inspirals • Observation :1038 hours (86.5%) • Well-organized observation • Automatic lockof the detector • Online monitor and diagnosis • 65 shift participants(2 person / 8 hours’ shift) XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  13. Typhoon Laser instability Measurement+adjustment Human error Data taking runs (3)- Detector operation status in DT6 - • Operation status calendar Total observation : 1038 hours XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  14. Data Analysis results (1)- TAMA data analysis - • GW search • Binary inspiral search • Two step search • Binary inspiral search using Wavelet • TAMA-LISM coincidence • Continuous wave from known pulsar • Burst wave search • BH ringdown search, Stochastic background search, etc. • Detector characterization analysis • Calibration • Noise veto analysis • Interferometer diagnosis XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  15. Data Analysis results (2)- Binary inspiral search - • Binary inspiral event search • Matched filtering Prepare templates (predicted waveform) • Expected SNR for binary mergers • Distance: 10kpc (Galactic center) • DT6 noise spectrum SNR : about 30 (1.4/1.4 Msolar binaries) XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  16. Data Analysis results (3)- Search results - • Matched filtering analysis • DT6 1038 hours’ data • 1.0-2.0 Msolarevents (200-1000 templates) • c2 event selection No GW event • Simulation • Assumed Galactic source distribution • DT6 detector direction Detection efficiency: 23% • Upper limit Galactic event rate: 0.0095 events/hour (C.L. 90%)10-6 events/year (prediction) XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  17. Data taking 8 (1)-Data taking runs with TAMA300 - XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  18. Data taking 8 (2)- DT8 observation summary - • TAMA data taking 8 (DT8) • 2 month’ observation(February 14 – April 15, 2003) • Full configuration (with power recycling) • Sufficient sensitivity and stability for GW events in our Galaxy • SNR of 40for 1.4-1.4 Msolar inspirals • Observation :1157 hours (81.3%) • 94 shift participant • Coincidence run • LIGO(4km detector x2, 2km detector) XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  19. Data taking 8 (3)- Detector operation status in DT8 - • Operation status calendar Total operation : 1157 hours XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  20. Data taking 8 (4)- Sensitivity in DT8 - • Sensitivity for binary inspiral events • Better than DT6 • Longer obs. Time Better results • Coincidence Analysis with other detectors XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  21. LCGT project • SNR : 10 for 230Mpc events (NS-NS inspiral) LCGT project (1)- Overview - • For gravitational wave astronomy Higher sensitivity (seeing further away) More than a few events in a year Illustration / S.Miyoki 10-19 10-20 10-21 Strain sensitivity[1/Hz1/2] 10-22 10-23 10-24 10-25 100 101 102 103 104 Frequency [Hz] XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  22. LCGT project (2)- LCGT parameters - • LCGT • Baseline length : 3km • Site: Kamioka mine • Cryogenic interferometer • Laser : 100W • 50kg Sapphire mirror (20K, Q=108) • Broadband RSE • Seismic isolator : SAS (300K) Cryogenic SUS (10K, Q=2x108) Suspension point interferometer XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  23. LCGT project (3)- CLIO100 - • CLIO100 : LCGT prototype at Kamioka mine • 100m cryogenic interferometer • R&D for … • Mirror • Suspension • Cryogenics • Tunnel digging finished (July 2002) • Installing IFO for geo-phys XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  24. LCGT project (4)- Site for CLIO100 - Super Kamiokande Entrance CLIO100 XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  25. Summary • TAMA300 • Data taking runs • 8 data taking runs (August 1999- ), over 2000 hours of data • Data analysis • Upper limit for Galactic binary inspirals : 0.0095 /hour • Coincidence analysis, burst wave, continuous wave • Data taking 8 : February 14 - April 15, 2003 just finished Better results will be obtained • Collaboration with other detectors • For LCGT • R&D tasks --- TAMA300 and CLIO100 • Design document XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  26. XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  27. Gravitational-wave astronomy New window for astronomy and cosmology Introduction (2)- Gravitational-wave astronomy - • Gravitational waves(Ripples of space time) • Predicted by General Relativity --- Strain of space-time which propagates at the speed of the light (A.Einstein, 1916) • Existence was proved by observation of a binary pulsar (J.H.Taylor, et.al, 1979) • Generated by acceraration of masses ( Electro-Magnetic waves :acceraration of charges) • High transmissivity (Small cross section with matters) A.Einstein Accumulated shift[s] Time[year] XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  28. TAMA project (1)- Optical and control configuration - XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  29. TAMA project (1)- Data acquisition and analysis - XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  30. TAMA project (1)- Basic design of TAMA300 - XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  31. Excess power Gaussianity Data Analysis results (3)--- Burst wave search --- • Burst GW event search (M.Ando, et.al.) • Poorly predicted waveform • Cannot use matched-filtering scheme • Masked with non-Gaussian noises • Excess power detection • Time-scale selection • Reject non-Gaussian noise without rejecting GW candidates • Event rate : 10-2 /hour (1.2x10-20 /Hz) XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  32. Data Analysis results (4)--- Continuous wave search --- • Continuous wave search (K.Soida, M.Ando, et.al.) • Target :pulsar at SN1987A remnant(935 0.1 Hz) • DT6 1038 hours’ data • Threshold : 14P0(False alarm: 2.6%) No GW signal, hupperlimit : 3.4x10-23(Preliminary: fixed spindown param.) XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  33. Data taking 8 (4)- Noise level at DT8 - XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  34. TAMA current status (1)--- Improvements after DT6 --- • Power recycling (TAMA Phase II) • Mirror installation : November, 2001 • First lock : Dec. 24, 2001 • Harmonic demodulation for RM control • Longest lock : 4 hours • Recycling gain : 4 (Low gain configuration) • Improved noise level • Shot noise • Detector noise level • Scattered light noise • Frequency stabilization (K.Arai, R.Takahashi S.Sato, et.al.) XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  35. Improvement factor of 3 TAMA current status (2)--- Current noise level --- • Latest noise level Improved with power recycling (and the other efforts) h : 4x10-21 /Hz1/2 around 1kHz DT7 (Aug.31-Sept.1) XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  36. Data taking runs (1)--- Noise level at DT6 --- • DT6 noise level • h : 5x10-21 /Hz1/2 at 1kHz • Noise sources are identified Alignment control noise Michelson phase noise Detector noise Shot noise etc. (K.Arai, R.Takahashi, et.al.) XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  37. Data Analysis results (5)--- Coincidence search --- • TAMA-LISM coincidence analysis for binary events (paper in preparation) (H.Takahashi, H.Tagoshi, N.Kanda, D.Tatsumi, T.Tanaka) • LISM • 20m detector at Kamioka mine • Locked Fabry-Perot configuration • Sensitivity h : 8x10-20 /Hz1/2 • Simultaneous operation with TAMA DT6: 709 hours • Compare candidate event list • 244 hours of commonly lock data. • Check parameter consistency 1. Significant reduction of fake event rate. 2. Number of survived events : Consistent with the accidental coincident rate. 3. Upper limit to the Galactic event rate within 1kpc : 0.064/hours (1.0-2.0 Msolar) XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)

  38. Data taking 8 (5)- Stability of sensitivity in DT8 - • Sensitivity distribution XII-th International School on Particles and Cosmology (April 24, 2003, Baksan Valley, Russia)