A Sentence... • MUST have a subject and a verb (predicate) • MUST have a complete thought Also... • Begins with a capital letter • Ends with punctuation
Sentence Types • Simple • Compound • Complex • Compound-Complex
Basic Elements of Every Sentence SUBJECT PREDICATE
Basic Elements SUBJECT PREDICATE Mary plays tennis.
Types of Sentence Structure Simple sentence = ONE independent clause May have a compound subject or compound verb, but still only one main clause and no dependent clauses; may have phrases included, but still only one independent, main clause Examples: Brian ran down the field. (1 subject and 1 verb) Hope and Kelsie talked and laughed all night. (compound subject and compound verb)
Simple Sentence Observe how a simple sentence is constructed: We went to San Juan yesterday.
Simple Sentence Pronoun Verb Prepositional phrase We went to San Juan . Simple subject Complete predicate
SIMPLE SENTENCE PREDICATE SUBJECT plays tennis. Mary one subject one predicate
Simple Sentence Tom and Mary play tennis. Compound Subject &
Simple Sentence play tennis and swim. Tom and Mary Compound Subject Compound Predicate & &
SIMPLE SENTENCEwith compound subject Tom and Mary play tennis.
SIMPLE SENTENCEwith compound subject andcompound predicate Tom and Mary play tennis and swim.
Types of Sentence Structure Compound Sentence - = A compound sentence has 2 or more parts that can stand alone (independent clauses) Can be joined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS), CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBSor by a semicolon Examples: Hannah likes to read, but she likes to watch movies, too. Hunter wants to play baseball, or he might go out for golf, but he will always play football. Ryan plays the trumpet well; he practices every day of the week.
Compound Sentence We went to San Juan, and most of us danced all night.
Compound Sentence Subject Verb Prepositional phrase Wewentto San Juan, Predicate Coordinating Conjunction andmost of usdancedall night . Subject Modifying phrase Verb
Compound SentenceUse of Coordinating Conjunctions SUBJECT PREDICATE and SUBJECT PREDICATE
Compound Sentence Tom swims, and Mary plays tennis.
COMPOUND SENTENCE:COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS FOR AND NOR BUT OR YET SO
COMPOUND SENTENCE:COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS Tom swims,and Mary plays tennis. Clause 1 Clause 2 Independent Independent
COMPOUND SENTENCE:COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS Tom swims, andMary plays tennis. Comma before “and” in compound sentences!
COMPOUND SENTENCE:CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS MOREOVER HOWEVER OTHERWISE THEREFORE
COMPOUND SENTENCE:CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS Bob is handsome; moreover, he is rich. Clause 1 Clause 2 Independent Independent
COMPOUND SENTENCE:CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS Bob is handsome; moreover, he is rich. Note: Semicolon before conjunctive adverb and comma after conjunctive adverb!
Conjunctive Adverbs “float” • Conjunctive adverbs are sometimes called “floating” adverbs because they can be positioned at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a clause.
CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB:AT THE BEGINNING, IN THE MIDDLE,AT THE END Bob is handsome; moreover, he is rich. Bob is handsome; he is, moreover, rich. Bob is handsome; he is rich, moreover.
Semicolons • “If the relation between the ideas expressed in the main clauses is very close and obvious without a conjunction, you can separate the clauses with a semicolon” (Little, Brown Handbook, 9th Edition, p. 361).
COMPOUND SENTENCE:SEMICOLON Tom has benefited from his exercise program; he is slim and energetic.
Sentence Structure Practice:Identify these sentences as Simple or Compound. • You and I need piano lessons. • I planned to go to the hockey game, but I couldn’t get tickets. • Bridget ran the first part of the race, and Tara biked the second part. • The bell rang. • Dorothy likes white water rafting, but she also enjoys kayaking. • The skier turned and jumped. • Ella hoped to win the contest and get a prize. • Jonathan saw the opportunity, and he drew back the bow. • Jack and Dustin scored well on the test in their math classes. • Kelly bought some new shoes, and she wore them to a party. • My horse loves to run and buck in the sunshine. • Kevin wanted to stay home, so Sandy went shopping. • Alicia goes to the library and studies every day. • John and Mark played football and baseball in high school. • Kim decided she did want to go on the trip, yet she still had to raise the money to go.
Answers • Simple • Compound • Compound • Simple • Compound • Simple • Simple • Compound • Simple • Compound • Simple • Compound • Simple • Simple • Compound
Complex Sentence = 1 independent clause and 1 or more dependent clauses • A complex sentence has at least two parts: one that can stand alone and another one that cannot • The part that cannot stand alone is linked to the rest of the sentence by a subordinating conjunction
Complex Sentence • Examples: • When it started to snow, the children all cheered. • I will grade all of the tests after I finish my lunch. • Before he started playing in the band, Josh wondered what he would do with all of his spare time.
Complex Sentence Since my boyfriend and I wanted to have fun, we went to San Juan yesterday.
Complex Sentence Sincewewantedto have fun, Subordinating Conjunction Part that cannot stand alone Subject Predicate wewentto San Juan yesterday.
Complex Sentence SUBJECT PREDICATE even though SUBJECT PREDICATE
Complex Sentence Bob is popular even though he is ugly.
COMPLEX SENTENCE:SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS The most common subordinating conjunctions are"after," "although," "as," "because," "before," "how," "if," "once," "since," "than," "that," though," "till," "until," "when," "where," "whether,” and while."
COMPLEX SENTENCE:SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS Bob is popular even though he is ugly. Clause 1 Clause 2 Independent Dependent
COMPLEX SENTENCE:SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS Even though Bob is ugly, he is popular. Clause 1 Clause 2 Dependent Independent
Compound-Complex Sentences = at least 2 independent clauses (compound) and at least 1 dependent clause (complex) • Examples: • When I realized I was wrong, I apologized, but I still felt bad about it. • Katie wanted a new puppy, and she asked her mom after she had cleaned her room thoroughly.
Compound-Complex Sentence • This type of sentence has more than one part that can stand alone, and at least one that cannot. • Conjunctions link the different parts of this sentence.
Compound-Complex Sentence Since we wanted to have fun, my boyfriend and I went to San Juan yesterday, and we danced all night.
Compound-Complex Sentence Subordinating Conjunction Sincewewantedto have fun, Part that cannot stand alone my boyfriend and Iwentto San Juan, Subject Predicate Coordinating Conjunction andwedancedall night.
Compound-Complex Sentence Mike is popular because he is good looking, but he is not very happy.
Sentence Structure Practice:Identify these sentences as Complex (CX) or Compound-Complex (CD-CX). • Michael always dresses nicely for school because he likes to be neat. • He stands at the bottom of the cliff while the climber moves up the rock. • Since he studied hard, Nate passed the test, and he graduated with honors. • Because Kayla has so much climbing experience, we asked her to lead our group. • I must stay home until the man comes to repair the washing machine. • There are many problems to solve before this program can be used, but engineers believe that they will be able to solve them soon. • I wrote Jane a letter while she was away at camp. • When the rain began, we were playing tennis. • When Tyler looks out his window, he sees the beautiful day waiting, and he longs to be outside playing. • In the late afternoon sunshine, Paige looked beautiful on her horse.