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April 12 - Cosmonautics Day PowerPoint Presentation
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April 12 - Cosmonautics Day

April 12 - Cosmonautics Day

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April 12 - Cosmonautics Day

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  1. April 12 - Cosmonautics Day Russia celebrates the first space flight of the first soviet astronaut Yuri Gagarin who completed an orbit of the Earth on Vostok spacecraft on April 12, 1961. Since 1968 Cosmonautics Day is celebrated worldwide.

  2. Yuri Gagarin • YuriGagarinwasborninthevillageofKlushino,nearGzhatsk (renamedGagarinin 1968 afterhisdeath), on 9 March 1934. • Aftergraduatingfromthetechnicalschoolin 1955, theSovietArmydraftedGagarin. Onarecommendation, GagarinwassenttotheFirstChkalovAirForcePilot'sSchoolinOrenburg, andsoloedina MiG-15 in 1957. • Post-graduation, hewasassignedtotheLuostariairbaseinMurmansk Oblast, closetothe Norwegian border, whereterribleweathermadeflyingrisky. HebecameaLieutenantinthe Soviet Air Forceson 5 November 1957; on 6 November 1959 hereceivedtherankofSeniorLieutenant.

  3. Yuri Gagarin • In 1960, aftermuchsearchingandaselectionprocess, YuriGagarinwaschosenwith 19 otherpilotsfortheSoviet space program. • GagarinwasfurtherselectedforanelitetraininggroupknownastheSochiSix, fromwhichthefirstcosmonautsoftheVostokprogrammewouldbechosen. Gagarinandotherprospectivecandidatesweresubjectedtoexperimentsdesignedtotestphysicalandpsychologicalendurance; healsounderwenttrainingfortheupcomingflight. • Outofthetwentyselected, theeventualchoicesforthefirstlaunchwereGagarinandGhermanTitovduetotheirperformanceduringtrainingsessionsaswellastheirphysicalcharacteristics — spacewaslimitedinthesmallVostokcockpit, andbothmenwererathershort. Gagarinwas 1.57 metrestall.

  4. Yuri Gagarin • On 12 April 1961, aboardtheVostok 3KA-3, Gagarinbecameboththefirsthumantotravelinto space,andthefirsttoobrittheEarth. HiscallsignwasKedr. • Inhispost-flightreport, Gagarinrecalledhisexperienceofspaceflight, havingbeenthefirsthumaninspace: • ThefeelingofweightlessnesswassomewhatunfamiliarcomparedwithEarthconditions. Here, youfeelasifyouwerehanginginahorizontalpositioninstraps. Youfeelasifyouaresuspended. Vostok I capsule

  5. KonstantinTsiolkovsky KonstantinEduardovichTsiolkovsky(17 September1857 – 19 September 1935) wasaRussianandSoviet rocketscientistandpioneeroftheastrinautic theory. Alongwithhisfollowers, theGerman Hermann OberthandtheAmericanRobert H. Goddard, heisconsideredtobeoneofthefoundingfathersofrocketryandastronautics.HisworkslaterinspiredleadingSovietrocketengineerssuchasSergey KorolevandValentinGlushkoandcontributedtothesuccessoftheSoviet space program.

  6. Konstantin Tsiolkovskiy • TsiolkovskydevelopedthefirstaerodynamicslaboratoryinRussiainhisapartment. In 1897, hebuiltthefirstRussianwindtunnelwithanopentestsectionanddevelopedamethodofexperimentationusingit. • In 1900, withagrantfromtheAcademyofSciences, hemadeasurveyusingmodelsofthesimplestshapesanddeterminedthedragcoefficientsofthesphere, flatplates, cylinders, cones, andotherbodies. • Tsiolkovsky'sworkinthefieldofaerodynamicswasasourceofideasforRussianscientistNikolayZhukovsky, thefatherofmodernaerodynamicsandhydrodynamics. Tsiolkovskydescribedtheairflowaroundbodiesofdifferentgeometricshapes, butbecausethe RPCS didnotprovideanyfinancialsupportforthisproject, hewasforcedtopayforitlargelyoutofhisownpocket.

  7. Sergei Korolev SergeiPavlovichKorolev(12 January1907 inZhytomyr -14 January 1966 in Moscow) wastheleadSoviet rocketengineerandspacecraftdesignerintheSpace Race betweentheUnited StatesandtheSoviet Unionduringthe 1950s and 1960s. Heisconsideredbymanyasthefatherofpracticalastronautics.

  8. Sergei Korolev • AlthoughKorolevwastrainedasanaircraftdesigner, hisgreateststrengthsprovedtobeindesignintegration, organizationandstrategicplanning. Arrestedforallegedmismanagementoffunds (hespentthemoneyonunsuccessfulexperimentswithrocketdevices), hewasimprisonedin 1938 foralmostsixyears, includingsomemonthsina Kolyma labourcamp. Followinghisrelease, hebecamearecognizedrocketdesignerandakeyfigureinthedevelopmentoftheSoviet ICBM program. HewasthenappointedtoleadtheSovietspaceprogram, madeMemberofSoviet Academy of Sciences, overseeingtheearlysuccessesofthe SputnikandVostokprojects. Bythetimehediedunexpectedlyin 1966, hisplanstocompetewiththeUnited StatestobethefirstnationtolandamanontheMoonhadbeguntobeimplemented. • Beforehisdeathhewasoftenreferredtoonlyas "ChiefDesigner", becausehisnameandhispivotalroleintheSovietspaceprogramhadbeenheldtobeastatesecretbythePolitburo.OnlymanyyearslaterwashepubliclyacknowledgedastheleadmanbehindSovietsuccessinspace.

  9. Sergei Korolev • Korolev'splanningforthepilotedmissionhadbegunbackin 1958, whendesignstudiesweremadeonthefutureVostok spacecraft. Itwastoholdasinglepassengerinaspace suit, andbefullyautomated. Thecapsulehadanescapemechanismforproblemspriortolaunch, andasoft-landingandejectionsystemduringtherecovery. • On 15 May 1960 anunpilotedprototypeperformed 64 orbitsoftheEarth, butfailedtoreturn. Fourtestswerethensentintoorbitcarryingdogs, ofwhichthelasttwowerefullysuccessful. Aftergainingapprovalfromthegovernment, amodifiedversionofthe R-7 wasusedtolaunchYuri Gagarin intoorbiton 12 April 1961, thefirsthumaninEarthorbit. HereturnedtoEarthviaaparachuteafterejectingatanaltitudeof 7 kilometres.

  10. NeilArmstrong NeilAldenArmstrong (August 5, 1930 – August 25, 2012) wasanAmericanastronaurandthe first person to walk on the Moon. Hewasalsoanaerospace engineer, naval aviator, test pilot, anduniversity professor. Beforebecominganastronaut, ArmstrongwasanofficerintheU.S.NavyandservedintheKorean War. Afterthewar, heearnedhisbachelor'sdegreeatPurdue UniversityandservedasatestpilotattheNational Advisory Committee for AeronauticsHigh-SpeedFlightStation, nowknownastheDryden Flight Research Center, whereheloggedover 900 flights. HelatercompletedgraduatestudiesattheUniversity of Southern California.

  11. NeilArmstrong Armstrong'ssecondandlastspaceflightwasasmissioncommanderofthe Apollo 11 moon landing, inJuly 1969. Onthismission, ArmstrongandBuzz Aldrindescendedtothelunarsurfaceandspenttwoandahalfhoursexploring, whileMichael CollinsremainedinlunarorbitintheCommandModule. ArmstrongannouncedshortlyaftertheApollo 11flightthathedidnotplantoflyinspaceagain. After that he was teaching foreightyearsintheDepartmentofAerospaceEngineeringattheUnivercity of Cincinnati and worked for NASA as a spaceflightaccidentexpert.

  12. Space today Presently humanity achieved great success in space assimilation. So there’s working and making high definition photos of Mars from the rover Curiosity, it has already found tracks of ancient rivers. Also we’re observing international space station working over the Earth orbit. The results of work at this station allow to get huge amount of information on our planet.

  13. Cosmobrain contest Cosmobrain contest is dedicated to Cosmonautics Day. It is a quiz about history of Cosmonautics, space exploration and creation of spacecrafts. The team of the 7thA form school 757 clamed the first place in Cosmobrain contest in Babushkinskiy district of Moscow and the forth place in the city contest, which took place in Moscow Planetarium.

  14. The Winners of Cosmobrain contest

  15. Conclusion During the last half of the century mankind reached impressive achievements. I’m sure that soon astronauts will get on Mars and other planets. This presentation was created by VitaliyVolodinunder supervision of Konyushkevich E. D.