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Chapter 3: The Ancient Israelites

Chapter 3: The Ancient Israelites

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Chapter 3: The Ancient Israelites

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  1. Chapter 3: The Ancient Israelites Section 1: The First Israelites

  2. Early Israelites • About 1000 bc, a group of people, Israelites, built a kingdom in Canaan • Israelites were different because they practiced monotheism: • belief in only one God • This early Israelite faith became known as Judaism • Would influence Christianity, Islam and most of the known world

  3. Early Israelites • Israelites spoke Hebrew and wrote down their history and religious beliefs • Hebrew bible • Israelites believed they were descended from a man named Abraham • If Abraham led the Israelites to Canaan and worshiped the one true God, then the land of Canaan would belong to Abraham and descendants

  4. Early Israelites • Abraham’s grandson, Jacob, raised 12 sons and those became known as the 12 tribes of Israel • Lived in Canaan for 100 years before drought forced them to Egypt

  5. Slavery to Freedom • Life for the Israelites in Egypt was not good • No baby boys = no men = no rebellion • According to the Bible, one mother saved her son by hiding him near the river • Pharaoh’s daughter found him and raised him as her own • Moses

  6. Slavery to Freedom • Moses believed he received a message from God to lead the Israelites out of Egypt • To get the pharaoh to let Israelites go, God sent 10 plagues to Egypt • Last plague killed all first born children, except for those Israelites who had marked their doorway • Jews today celebrate the holiday Passover, recognizing the day God “passed over” their homes and allowed freedom from Egypt

  7. Slavery to Freedom • Pharaoh changed his mind, sent his army and God parted the Red Sea for the Israelites only to drown Egyptian soldiers • Known as the Exodus

  8. Ten Commandments • Moses received laws from God • Known as the Torah (first part of the Hebrew Bible) • God promised safe return to Canaan if laws were followed • Torah explained what God considered right and wrong and the Ten Commandments • Basic moral laws as well as “rule of law” (all rules apply to everyone)

  9. Promised Land • Took Israelites about 40 years to reach Canaan again • Had to take back Canaan from other tribes/people • Jericho

  10. Promised Land • A group known as the Phoenicians had been living in Canaan and Israelites adopted some of their ideas • Alphabet (group of letters that stood for sounds) • Phoenician alphabet made writing simpler and helped keep more accurate records • Brought alphabet to Greeks…passed on to Romans…most alphabets based on Roman alphabet