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Fragments, Run-Ons, & Comma Splices

Fragments, Run-Ons, & Comma Splices

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Fragments, Run-Ons, & Comma Splices

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  1. Fragments, Run-Ons, & Comma Splices

  2. Fragments, Run-ons, & comma splices Fragments, run-ons, and comma splices are often considered major errors because they obstruct your writing and confuse your reader. However, they are easily corrected.

  3. Fragments A fragment is an incomplete sentence, meaning is it missing a subject and/or verb and/or it is an incomplete thought. There are several types of fragments.

  4. Fragments Here are some of the most common. • Dependent Clause • Relative Clause • -ingModifier • Prepositional Phrase • Appositive • Infinitive

  5. Fragments • Dependent Clause Because I had a roommate I already knew. This is a fragment because, even though it has a subject (I) and a verb (had), it does not express a complete thought.

  6. Fragments • Relative Clause Who was my roommate my freshman year. This is a fragment because, even though it has a subject (Who) and a verb (was), it does not express a complete thought. It would, however, be correct as a question: Who was my roommate my freshman year?

  7. Fragments • -ing Modifier Living with a roommate. This is a fragment because it has no subject or verb and does not express a complete thought.

  8. Fragments • Prepositional Phrase In the same room. This is a fragment because it has no subject or verb and does not express a complete thought.

  9. Fragments • Appositive My roommate. This is a fragment because, even though it has a subject (roommate), it has no verb and does not express a complete thought.

  10. Fragments • Infinitive To live with a roommate. This is a fragment because it has no subject or verb and does not express a complete thought.

  11. Fragments Fragments may be corrected in 2 different ways. • Add words to complete the sentence. • Connect the fragment to the sentence before or after it.

  12. Fragments • Add words to complete the sentence. Fragment: Who was my roommate my freshman year. Sentence: Adrian, who was my roommate my freshman year, never took out the garbage.

  13. Fragments • Connect the fragment to the sentence before or after it. Fragment: I knew that my living arrangement was not the worst. Because I had a roommate I already knew. Sentence: I knew that my living arrangement was not the worst because I had a roommate I already knew.

  14. It’s Your Turn! Correct the fragment in 2 different ways: When I come to the Writing Center. I always get help on my essays.

  15. It’s Your Turn! Here are some possibilities: • I know I have made the right decision when I come to the Writing Center. I always get help on my essays. • When I come to the Writing Center, I always get help on my essays.

  16. Run-Ons Joining two independent clauses without any punctuation creates a run-on (or fused sentence). Example: There are organizations available for almost any interest I have had a difficult time trying to decide on just a few.

  17. Run-Ons Run-ons may be corrected in 5 different ways. • Use a period. • Use a semicolon. • Use a semicolon and conjunctive adverb. • Use a comma and coordinating conjunction. • Use a subordinating conjunction.

  18. Run-Ons • Use a period. There are organizations available for almost any interest. I have had a difficult time trying to decide on just a few.

  19. Run-Ons 2. Use a semicolon. There are organizations available for almost any interest; I have had a difficult time trying to decide on just a few.

  20. Run-Ons 3. Use a semicolon and conjunctive adverb. There are organizations available for almost any interest; thus, I have had a difficult time trying to decide on just a few.

  21. Run-Ons 4. Use a comma and coordinating conjunction. There are organizations available for almost any interest, so I have had a difficult time trying to decide on just a few.

  22. Run-Ons 5. Use a subordinating conjunction. Because there are organizations available for almost any interest, I have had a difficult time trying to decide on just a few.

  23. It’s Your Turn! Correct the run-on in 5 different ways: I have made a standing appointment in the Writing Center my tutor will help me with writing assignments in all of my classes.

  24. It’s Your Turn! Here are some possibilities: • I have made a standing appointment in the Writing Center. My tutor will help me with writing assignments in all of my classes. • I have made a standing appointment in the Writing Center; my tutor will help me with writing assignments in all of my classes. • I have made a standing appointment in the Writing Center; therefore, my tutor will help me with writing assignments in all of my classes. • I have made a standing appointment in the Writing Center, so my tutor will help me with writing assignments in all of my classes. • As long as I have made a standing appointment in the Writing Center, my tutor will help me with writing assignments in all of my classes.

  25. Comma Splices Joining two independent clauses with only a comma and no coordinating conjunction creates a comma splice. Example: Several of my classmates are in an honor society, I plan to work hard so I may join them.

  26. Comma Splices Comma splices may be corrected the same way as run-ons. • Use a period. • Use a semicolon. • Use a semicolon and conjunctive adverb. • Use a comma and coordinating conjunction. • Use a subordinating conjunction.

  27. Comma Splices • Use a period. Several of my classmates are in an honor society. I plan to work hard so I may join them.

  28. Comma Splices 2. Use a semicolon. Several of my classmates are in an honor society; I plan to work hard so I may join them.

  29. Comma Splices 3. Use a semicolon and conjunctive adverb. Several of my classmates are in an honor society; indeed, I plan to work hard so I may join them.

  30. Comma Splices 4. Use a comma and coordinating conjunction. Several of my classmates are in an honor society, and I plan to work hard so I may join them.

  31. Comma Splices 5. Use a subordinating conjunction. Now that several of my classmates are in an honor society, I plan to work hard so I may join them.

  32. It’s Your Turn! Correct the comma splice in 5 different ways: I take all of my papers to the Writing Center, I tell my classmates to do the same.

  33. It’s Your Turn! Here are 5 possibilities: • I take all of my papers to the Writing Center. I tell my classmates to do the same. • I take all of my papers to the Writing Center; I tell my classmates to do the same. 3. I take all of my papers to the Writing Center; furthermore, I tell my classmates to do the same. 4. I take all of my papers to the Writing Center, and I tell my classmates to do the same. 5. When I take all of my papers to the Writing Center, I tell my classmates to do the same.

  34. Don’t forget: print the handout that goes with this presentation! Please complete a survey on this tutorial. For more information about fragments, run-ons, and comma splices or for help with other writing concerns, come to TSU’s Writing Center. Visit room 300 in the Learning Resources Center or call 615.963.5102 to make an appointment.