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Chpt 16: Mixtures

Chpt 16: Mixtures

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Chpt 16: Mixtures

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  1. Chpt 16: Mixtures • Types of Mixtures • Colloids & Suspensions • Solutions • Solubility • Electrolytes • Percent Concentration • Molarity • Osmosis • Water Purification

  2. Matter Mixture Pure Substance Element Compound Fe + S FeS Fe Mg + O2 MgO Mg Classification of matter

  3. Mixture Solution Homogeneous Heterogeneous Pizza Fe + S Gasoline Tea w/ice Sand Mixtures Uniform composition Non-uniformcomposition Suspension Milk Fog Urine Air Peptobismol

  4. Homogeneous Mixtures Colloids & Suspensions • Colloid: Homogeneous mix • But not a solution. Particles larger (10-7 to 10-5 cm) than in a sln (<10-7 cm). But still don’t settle out. Suspension: Heterogeneous mix Large particles may settle out & can be filtered.

  5. Liquid dispersed in Gas = Aerosol Solid in Gas = Aerosol Gas in Liq = foam Liquid in Liquid = emulsion Solid in Liquid = sol Gas in Solid = foam Liquid in Solid = Gel Solid in Solid = solid sol Homogeneous Mixtures Colloids • Gaseous Medium • Fog, • Smoke Liquid Medium Cool whip, milk, paint,blood • Solid Medium • Styrofoam • Jelly,Opals • Pearls, • Concrete

  6. Homogeneous Mixtures Tyndal effect • Colloidal suspensions exhibit light scattering. 1. purple gold sol 2. copper sulfate solution 3. iron(III) hydroxide colloid 1 2 3

  7. Tyndal effect

  8. Homogeneous Mixtures Solutions • A solution = • A homogeneousmixture that does not scatter light. Sugar in water Saline Oxygen in water Air Dental fillings

  9. Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Cl- Homogeneous Mixtures Solutions • Solvent : • component in greater amount • (The dissolver) • Water • Alcohol • Solute: • component in lesser amount • (The dissolved) • NaCl • Sugar

  10. Homogeneous Mixtures Solutions • solute evenly dispersed • always stays mixed • the solute can’t be filtered out • particles are always in motion • volumesnot additive

  11. Gas in Gas Gas in Liquid Liquid in Liquid Solid in Liquid Liquid in Solid (Hg in Ag) Solid in Solid Homogeneous Mixtures Solutions Gaseous solutions Air, Anesthesia gases Liquid solutions Soda, Vodka, Saline, • Solid solutions • dental fillings, • 14K gold (58% Au ), • Brass (Zn in Cu), • Steel (C in Fe),

  12. d- d- d- d- O O O O d+ d+ d+ d+ d+ H H H H H H H H d+ d+ d+ Hydrogen Bonding of Water Polar Attraction Hydrogen Bonds

  13. Hydrogen Bonding of Water Hydrogen Bonds Causes Surface Tension Surfactants reduce Surface Tension by disrupting H-bonding (soaps, detergents etc.)

  14. Hydrogen Bonding of Water Frozen H2O: Slow moving molecules H-Bond in patterns (Hexagonal Ring Crystals)

  15. Hydration Polar water attracts to Na+ and Cl- ions “Like Dissolves Like” When an ionic solid dissolves in water, the polar solvent removes ions from the crystal lattice.

  16. + H H O - + H d+ d+ H O d- d- - H - + O d+ d+ H - - - - H H H H H H O O O O O O + + + + H H H H H H Hydration

  17. + H H O - + H H O - H - + O H - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H Hydration

  18. + H H O - + H H O - H - + O H - - - - - - - - - - - H H H H H H H H H H H O O O O O O O O O O O + + + + + + + + + + + H H H H H H H H H H H Hydration

  19. + H H O - + H H O - H - + O H - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H Hydration

  20. + + + + + + + + + + + H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H O O O O O O O O O O O - - - - - - - - - - - + H H O - H - + O H - - - - - H H H H H O O O O O + + + + + H H H H H Hydration

  21. + H H O - + H H O - H - + O H - - - - - - - - - - - - - H H H H H H H H H H H H H O O O O O O O O O O O O O + + + + + + + + + + + + + H H H H H H H H H H H H H Hydration

  22. + + + + + + H H H H H H H H H H H H O O O O O O - - - - - - + H H O - H - + O H - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H Hydration

  23. + H H O - + H H O - H H H H H H H H H H H - - - - - - - - - - - + + + + + + + + + + + O O O O O O O O O O O H H H H H H H H H H H - - - - - H H H H H O O O O O + + + + + H H H H H Hydration

  24. + H H O - + + + + + + + + + + H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H O O O O O O O O O O - - - - - - - - - - H - + O H - - - - - H H H H H O O O O O + + + + + H H H H H Hydration

  25. + H H O - + + + + + H H H H H H H H H H O O O O O - - - - - H H H H H - - - - - + + + + + O O O O O H H H H H - - - - - - - - - H H H H H H H H H O O O O O O O O O + + + + + + + + + H H H H H H H H H Hydration “Like Dissolves Like”

  26. Dissolving covalent compounds • Covalent compounds do not dissociate. • Dilute: • Small amount of solute compared to solvent.

  27. Saturation • Dilute: • Little solute compared to solvent. • Concentrated • Lots of solute compared to solvent • Concentration • Amount of solute • Amount of solution

  28. Saturation • Unsaturated: • Can dissolve more. • Saturated • Have dissolved all possible Undissolved Solids in equilibrium w/ dissolved particles

  29. Saturation • Supersaturated: • Temporarily dissolves more • than normal at given Temp. • Precipitate • Excess solute that falls out of solution

  30. Solubility How muchsolute will dissolve in a solvent • Factors affecting solubility • Polarity • Temperature • Pressure

  31. Polarityvs Solubility Like Dissolves Like Polar Attracts Polar Nonpolar Attracts Nonpolar Ethanol dissolves in H2O NaCl dissolves in H2O But not in C6H14 Oil Oil dissolves in C6H14 But not in H2O H2O

  32. C6H12O6 NaCl C6H12O6 Cl- Na+ C6H12O6 Na+ Cl- Electrolytes Ionic Covalent No Ions Dissolved Ions NaCl  Na+ + Cl-

  33. NaCl HF F1- HF Cl- Na+ H+ H+ F1- Na+ Cl- HF Electrolytes Ionic Weak Strong Lots of Ions Only a few Ions NaCl  Na+ + Cl- HF  H+ + F-

  34. Temperature vs Solubility Gas NaCl Solubility (g/100ml water) Temperature (oC)

  35. Temperature vs Solubility when T increases T Sol • Gases & mostliquids less soluble Solids more soluble T Sol

  36. T S T S T S Temperature vs Solubility The solubility of a gas in a liquid is inversely related to the temperature . If T goes up Gas solubility goes down (gases escape) Gas Solubility

  37. Temperature vs Solubility Carbonated beveragesbottled cold.

  38. Temperature vs Solubility Cold H2O holds more gas than warm H2O If hot rivers lose too much dissolved O2 the fish can’t survive.

  39. P Sol Pressure vs Solubility when P increases • Gases • More soluble Solids & Liquids unaffected Sol P

  40. T P Sol HENRY’S LAW The solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly related to the pressure on the liquid. Gas solubility goes up (more gas will dissolve) If P goes up

  41. T P Sol HENRY’S LAW If P goes down Gas solubility goes down (gases escape) Example: opening a soda. Soda under high pressure Soda under low pressure

  42. The “Bends” Lower P Less dissolved gases Quick ascent Get bubbles in blood & joints  extreme pain High P Lots of dissolved N2

  43. The “Bends” Lower P N2accumulates in brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. Bubbles here can cause paralysis and convulsions. Effects often irreversible. Less dissolved gases High P Lots of dissolved gases

  44. The “Bends” Rapid ascent from the high pressure environment to the surface caused the “bends” in these workers. Bends was first discovered in workers who were excavating inside Caissons. CAISSON

  45. Nitrogen Narcosis • “Nitrogen Narcosis”, • = nitrogen euphoria or raptures of the deep. • (Effect somewhat like that observed • when alcohol levels rise in the blood.) So, Helium often substituted for N2 in divers air.

  46. Temperature vs Solubility Divers with bends often packed in ice for transport to hyperbaric chamber.

  47. Soaps & Detergents Temporary Emulsion Emulsifying Agent Oil H2O Stable Emulsion Soaps Detergents Lecithins Polar Head attracts Water Nonpolar Tail attracts Oil

  48. Soaps & Detergents Micelle Oil

  49. Soap Scum Soluble Soap Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe3+ Ions in hard water Ca2+ Ca2+ Insoluble Soap Scum

  50. Ca2+ Cl- CaCO3 CaCO3 Water Purification “Softer”Water Hard Water Na2CO3 Sodium Carbonate (Washing Soda) Cl- Ca2+ Na+ Na+ Cl- Ca2+ Ca2+ Ca2+ Cl- Insoluble Carbonates of Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe3+ can be filtered out Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe3+ Ions in hard water