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Managing Operational Energy in Buildings

Managing Operational Energy in Buildings. SP3 Module 4. Global Warming. Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation. Buildings’ Contribution to Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

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Managing Operational Energy in Buildings

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  1. Managing Operational Energy in Buildings SP3 Module 4

  2. Global Warming Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation.

  3. Buildings’ Contribution to Greenhouse Gas Emissions • Buildings Account for 40 - 60% of CO2 emissions • Over the next 25 years, CO2 emissions from buildings are projected to grow faster than any other sector. • Emissions from commercial buildings are projected to grow the fastest—1.8% a year through 2030 • Buildings consume 70% of the electricity load • Buildings have a lifespan of 50-100 years during which they continually consume energy and produce CO2 emissions. Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  4. Energy Consumption and Generation • In 2005, the overall worldwide energy use was estimated to be at 500 exajoules (5×1020 J) • 80 to 90 percent derived from the burning of fossil fuels. • World marketed energy consumption is projected to rise by 44 percent from 2006 to 2030. • Global emissions of the main greenhouse gas carbon dioxide will jump more than 39 percent by 2030. • Worldwide demand for liquids and other forms of petroleum could rise from 85 million b/d in 2006 to 91 million b/d in 2015 and to 107 million b/d in 2030. Source: International Energy Outlook, Energy Information Adminitrstion. US DOE

  5. Sources of Energy

  6. Energy Use in Buildings

  7. Energy Management • Energy management is the process of analyzing how efficiently energy is used (Thumann and Younger, 2008). • It is important to find ways to reduce energy consumption. For this purpose, we need to analyse all aspects of a building’s energy use to find practical ways of reducing consumption (Pank et.al. 2002). • Because energy is not a fixed cost, energy management is important.

  8. Energy Audit • A process to evaluate where a building or plant uses energy, and identify opportunities to reduce consumption (Thumann and Younger, 2008). • An inspection, survey and analysis of energy flows in a building, process or system with the objective of understanding the energy dynamics of the system under study (Graham, 2003).

  9. Types of Energy Audits Level 1—The Walk-Through Audit • The walk-through audit, as its name implies, is a tour of the facility to visually inspect each of the energy using systems. • It will typically include an evaluation of energy consumption data to analyze energy use quantities and patterns as well as provide comparisons to industry averages or benchmarks for similar facilities.

  10. Types of Energy Audits Level 1—The Walk-Through Audit • It is the least costly audit but can yield a preliminary estimate of savings potential and provide a list of low cost savings opportunities through improvements in operational and maintenance practices. • The level one audit is also an opportunity to collect information for a more detailed audit later on if the preliminary savings potential appears to warrant an expanded scope of auditing activity.

  11. Types of Energy Audits Level 2—Standard Audit • The standard audit goes on to quantify energy uses and losses through a more detailed review and analysis of equipment, systems, and operational characteristics. • This analysis may also include some on-site measurement and testing to quantify energy use and efficiency of various systems.

  12. Types of Energy Audits Level 2—Standard Audit • Standard energy engineering calculations are used to analyzeefficiencies and calculate energy and costs savings based on improvements and changes to each system. • The standard audit will also include an economic analysis of recommended conservation measures.

  13. Types of Energy Audits Level 3—Computer Simulation • The level three audit will include more detail of energy use by function and a more comprehensive evaluation of energy use patterns. • This is accomplished through use of computer simulation software.

  14. Types of Energy Audits Level 3—Computer Simulation • This method also accounts for interactions between systems to help prevent overestimation of savings. • Because of the time involved in collecting detailed equipment information, operational data, and setting up an accurate computer model, this is the most expensive level of energy audit but may be warranted if the facility or systems are more complex in nature.

  15. Energy Accounting • The first task is to collect and review two years of utility energy data for all fuels. This includes electricity, natural gas, fuel oil and any other delivered fuels. • This information is used to analyze operational characteristics, calculate energy benchmarks for comparison to industry averages. • Estimate savings potential, set an energy reduction target, and establish a baseline to monitor the effectiveness of implemented measures.

  16. Energy Accounting • Make sure you receive copies of all monthly utility bills and delivered fuel invoices. • Sort utility bills by building or by meter, and organize them into 12- month blocks using the meter-read dates. • Locate all meters and sub-meters. If numerous meters are used, it is helpful to clearly label them on a site plan for each building being evaluated. • Determine which building or space is being served by each meter. • Calculate area (in square meter) for each building.

  17. Energy Use Index (EUI) • The Energy Use Index (EUI) is the most common means of expressing the total energy consumption for each building. • The EUI is expressed in Btus/Square Foot/Year or KWH/Square Meter/Year and can be used to compare energy consumption relative to similar building types or to track consumption from year to year in the same building.

  18. KW vs KWH • kWh is a measure of energy, whilst kW is a measure of power. • Energy is a measure of how much fuel is contained within something, or used by something over a specific period of time. • The kWh is a unit of energy. • Power is the rate at which energy is generated or used. • The kW is a unit of power.

  19. Energy Use Index

  20. Energy Use Index

  21. References

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