COLOR UNIT VOCABULARY:*INDICATES THAT THE TERM IS IN THE GREEN BOOK • Color • Spectrum* • Pigment* • Neutral * • 3 Properties of Color • Hue* • Color Wheel • Primary Colors* • Secondary Colors • Intermediate Colors/Tertiary Colors • Value* • Tint* • Shade* • Tone* • Intensity* • Complementary Colors* • Color Harmony/Color Scheme* • Analogous • Monochromatic • Warm Colors • Cool Colors • Split-Complementary • Triad
An Element of Art • Elements of Art= The Building Blocks • Knowing how to mix and use colors is crucial to the success of any work of art using color.
What is Color? • Color- An art element with three properties; hue, value, and intensity. Also, the character of surfaces created by the response of vision to wavelengths of reflected light.
The Source of Color • When a ray of white light passes through a glass prism, the ray is bent, or refracted. This ray of light them separates into individual bands of color, called the COLOR SPECTRUM.
Light Mixing Theories Applies to Light
Pigment • The powdered coloring material used in making artist’s media (paints, crayons, inks, etc.) are called PIGMENTS. • Can be natural or chemical (man-made) • Never quite as pure as the color spectrum Pigments used in Dyes in India
Light Mixing Theories Applies to Light Applies to Pigment
Neutral Colors • Not all objects have colors that are in the spectrum. • We do not clearly see any one color in them. • They are not associated with hue. • White • The sum of all colors – a white object REFLECTS to our eyes all the wavelengths shining on it, absorbing none of them. • Black • The total absence of reflected light; it results when an object ABSORBS all the wavelengths shining on it, reflecting none of them. • Gray • Created by PARTIAL REFLECTION (mixed black + white)
The Properties of Color • There are three properties that can be defined and measured: • HUE • VALUE • INTENSITY
Hue • HUE-The property of color that distinguishes one gradiation from another and gives it its name. • Examples of Hue: “blue”, “red”, “green” • Each hue has a different wavelength • Blue is 19 millionths of an inch long • Red is 30 millionths of an inch long • Refers to the color’s position on the spectrum.
The Color Wheel • A simplified version of the color spectrum, bent into a circle • An important tool for the artist – arranges it for easy study
The Color Wheel • Made of three types of colors: • Primary • Secondary • Intermediate/ Tertiary
Primary Colors • The three basic colors from which it is possible to mix all other colors. • The primaries cannot be produced by mixing pigments. • Red, Yellow, and Blue
Secondary Colors • Secondary Colors- Colors that result from the mixture of two primary colors. • Orange • Green • Violet
Intermediate/Tertiary Colors • Intermediate colors- Colors produced by mixing a primary color and the adjacent secondary color on the color wheel. • Also made by mixing unequal amounts of two primaries. • Also called “Tertiary Colors” Yellow-greenRed-violet Blue-green Red-orange Blue-violet Yellow-orange
Mixing Intermediates:What are two ways to mix each intermediate?
Create a Color Wheel You will create a color wheel to go in your sketchbook. Use the handout provided.
Create a Color WheelWhat is the hue and type of each color?Label your color wheel before you begin painting. • Always mix the darker color INTO the lighter color. • Always use more of the lighter color to start with. • Paint primary first. • Paint secondary second. • Paint intermediate third. • If your color is not correct, draw a new circle to paint the color into. Do not paint over an incorrect color. Acrylics are not truly opaque.
Complementary Colors • One of the most important color relationships illustrated in the color wheel. • They appear opposite each other on a color wheel. • Three main sets: • Yellow and Violet • Green and Red • Blue and Orange • What other sets can we identify?
Complementary Colors • They show a maximum visual contrast between colors. • The line where two complementary colors meet seems to vibrate in a composition.
(Left) Circus Parade by George Seurat (detail below) Pointillism & Optical Fusion • Pointillism is a technique that relies on something called optical fusion /optical mixing where our eyes blend colors that are separated on the paper. • Pointillism uses thousands of small dots of color, building up thousands of points for the viewer’s eyes to blend.
Properties of Color • Hue identifies color as blue, green, red, yellow, etc. as seen in the spectrum of the color wheel • VALUE: How does it relate to color? • Intensity
Value • What do we already know about Value?
Value in Nature • Value is natural aspect of color. Look around you: hues vary from light to dark simply based on shadows and highlights. Where do you see value in color in your surroundings?
How can value affect color? • Value is an aspect of all colors! • Every color has a normal value, which is shown on the color wheel. • Example: Red • The value of the color can be changed by adding white or black to the color. • Example: Red with black added Red with white added
Tints of a Color • Adding white to a hue produces a TINT. • A tint is lighter in value. • Tint = Hue + White
Primaries + = + = + = Secondaries + = + = + = Hue + White = Tint
Shades of a Color • Adding BLACK to a color produces a SHADE. • A shade is darker in value. • Shade = Hue + Black
Primaries + = + = + = Secondaries + = + = + = Hue + Black = Shade
So Many Colors! • There are no limitations of value in color. • Tints and shades can be made of any color: primary, secondary, intermediate, and anywhere in between.
SO Many Colors! There may be as many value steps between the lightest and darkest appearance of a color as there are between black and white.
Picasso The Old Guitarist
Making a Color Value Scale • On your paper you must one value scale – you may choose the color. • You must have 10 steps to each scale. • Start with white, end with black. • Step 6 will be your “normal hue”. • Each color must be an even increment apart. Pure White PureHUE Pure Black Tints Shades
Properties of Color • Hue identifies color as blue, green, red, yellow, etc. as seen in the spectrum of the color wheel • Value: refers to the darkness or lightness or a color • INTENSITY: ???
Intensity • Intensity refers to the quality of light in a color. • It is different from value (which refers to the quantity of light that a color reflects) example: light/dark colors of the hue • Intensity refers to the BRIGHTER and DULLER colors of the same hue. • Also known as saturation or strength.
Changing Intensity • A color, as it appears on the value scale, is at its’ brightest. • Two ways to change intensity: • Create a TONE – or mix the color with grey. • Mix the color with its’ complement.
Hue + Grey = TONE • Any hue mixed with grey is called a TONE.
Mixing Complements • When mixing complementary colors, bit by bit, a neutral gray is formed. This is because the complementary colors represent an equal balance of the three primary hues. • What are our complementary colors?
Intensity Scale & Tones 1. Create an intensity scale, going from one complement to another, in five steps. The middle step should be “greyish”. 2. Create five tones of the same color. (these can be “swatches” of colors) Hue “Grey” Hue’s Complement
Get out your color wheel! Color Schemes & Harmonies Have you ever said that certain colors “go well together”? Or that other colors “clash” when placed side by side?