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Computer Hardware And Software

Chapter 3. Computer Hardware And Software. Hardware vs. Software. Hardware The physical equipment used to process information Software Instructions that, with the help of people, command the hardware to perform desired tasks. Computer Hardware Conceptual Overview. Figure 3-1.

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Computer Hardware And Software

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  1. Chapter 3 Computer Hardware And Software

  2. Hardware vs. Software • Hardware • The physical equipment used to process information • Software • Instructions that, with the help of people, command the hardware to perform desired tasks Chapter 3

  3. Computer Hardware Conceptual Overview Figure 3-1 Chapter 3

  4. Computer Devices • Processing hardware • Controls the peripheral devices, as directed by computer software • Data bus • Electrical connection managing the flow of data between the processing hardware and the rest of the computer Chapter 3

  5. Computer Devices • Adaptors (controllers) • Reside inside the computer and convert commands and data from the data bus into signals that peripheral devices can use • Port • A connection between the computer box and a device outside the computer Chapter 3

  6. Computer Devices • Input, output, and communications devices • Transfer data between a computer and its users or other computers • Storage devices • Save data for later processing Chapter 3

  7. Uses of Input Hardware • Active data entry • A person uses an input device to enter data into a computer • Passive data entry • The computer obtains information without the active participation of a user • Control • A person uses an input device to control the tasks or actions of the computer. Chapter 3

  8. Input Devices • Keyboard • Consists of a plastic or metal housing containing keys that, when pressed, send a signal to the computer • Pointingdevices • Allow the user to control the movement of a cursor (pointer) on the screen Chapter 3

  9. Input Devices • Formatted Text Readers • Read text formatted specifically for the device in use • Image Capture Devices • Include scanners, digital still cameras, and digital camcorders Chapter 3

  10. Input Devices • Instrumentation devices • Receive input through other devices, such as machines and musical instruments, that produce electrical output • Sensors • Devices that respond to the environment with a signal that a computer can interpret Chapter 3

  11. Processing Hardware – The Execution Cycle Figure 3-5 Chapter 3

  12. Measuring Processing Power • Word length and bus width • Speed of arithmetic • Instruction speed • Instruction set • Pipelining Chapter 3

  13. Processing Hardware • Parallel processing • Uses two or more processors in a single computer • Specialized processors • Processors, such as video accelerators, voice processors, cryptographic coprocessors, and DSPs, that perform highly specialized tasks Chapter 3

  14. Processing Trends • Moore’s Law • A 1965 prediction by Gordon Moore, a co-founder of Intel, that the amount of information storable in a square inch of silicon would double about every 18 months Chapter 3

  15. Types of Storage Hardware • Primary storage • Electrical, resides on the bus, and is directly accessible to the processor • Secondary storage • Storage that the processor cannot access directly Chapter 3

  16. Types of Storage Hardware • Volatile storage • Requires electrical power to retain its data • Non-volatile storage • Retains its data in the absence of electrical power Chapter 3

  17. Primary Storage Devices • Cache memory • Expensive super-fast primary storage • RAM (random access memory) • Volatile primary storage • ROM (read-only memory) • Non-volatile primary storage Chapter 3

  18. Secondary Storage Devices • Fixed media • Hard disk • RAID • Removable media • Includes diskettes, cartridge disks, magnetic tape, optical media, and flash memory Chapter 3

  19. Other Storage Technologies • Distributed Storage • Storage Area Networks (SANs) • Volumetric Storage • Holographic • MFD Chapter 3

  20. Hardware for Data Output • Softcopy • Output on an unmovable medium, such as a computer screen. • Hardcopy • Output on a medium, such as paper, that can be removed from the computer. • Robotic • Output into devices that physically move in response to signals from a computer. Chapter 3

  21. Types of Software - Overview Figure 3-12 Chapter 3

  22. Types of Software • Vertical application software • Performs tasks common to a specific industry, or a function within an industry • Horizontal application software • Addresses tasks that are common to users in all or almost all industries Chapter 3

  23. Types of Software • Systems Software • Performs tasks to manage the devices and resources of a computer and its network • Systems-development software • Used to create new software Chapter 3

  24. Vertical Software Issues • Make vs. Buy • Custom • Customized • Packaged (COTS) • Integration • Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) • Middleware Chapter 3

  25. Horizontal Software Types • Office Automation • Business Function Application • Examples: Sales force management, Human resources management, Inventory management, Bookkeeping Chapter 3

  26. Systems Software • Operating System Kernel • Systems Utilities • Network and Systems Management Software Chapter 3

  27. Systems Development Software – Language Differences • Language Translation Method • Interpreted • Compiled • Level of Abstraction • Procedural vs. Non-Procedural • Command/Data Oriented vs. Object Oriented Chapter 3

  28. A Layered View of Software • Client/Server model • Divides a software application into at least two separate but interdependent parts called the clientand the server Chapter 3

  29. Client/Server Models • Two-tiered model • Client responsible for user interface • Server responsible for data storage and management • Result: Clients often need lots software and storage -- fat clients Chapter 3

  30. Client/Server Models • Three-tiered model • Client: User interface • 1st Tier Server: Business logic • 2nd Tier Server: Data handling • Results in “thin clients” • Multi-tiered models • Divide application into many components, each of which can call on the others to perform services Chapter 3

  31. Peek Into The Future – Nanotechnology • Nanotechnology • Refers to building structures on a scale of one-billionth of a meter, about five times the diameter of a carbon atom • Nanobots • Nanometer-sized robots, able to perform nano-assembly under the direction of a computer; perhaps able to reproduce Chapter 3

  32. Peek Into The Future – Artificial Intelligence • Rule-based systems • One in which the computer makes decisions based on logical rules • Neural network • Approach to artificial intelligence that operates by mimicking the human brain Chapter 3

  33. Peek Into The Future – Artificial Intelligence • Evolutionary algorithms • Approach to artificial intelligence that operates by observing the success or failure of millions of different sets of rules and approaches to solving a problem Chapter 3

  34. End of Chapter 3 Computer Hardware And Software

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