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SYSC 4700 Telecoms Engineering - Wireless Standards

SYSC 4700 Telecoms Engineering - Wireless Standards

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SYSC 4700 Telecoms Engineering - Wireless Standards

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  1. SYSC 4700 Telecoms Engineering - Wireless Standards John Visser, C.D., P.Eng. Email: jvisser@rogers.com Mobile: +1 613 276 6096 Skype™: john-visser 13 March 2014

  2. Objective • Describe why wireless standards are important • Provide some global context for wireless telecoms • Provide an overview of key mobile communications systems standards and standards bodies • 3GPPs and ITU Stars indicate points worth remembering!

  3. Outline • Introduction • Why are mobile communication systems standards so important? • Some history of relevant standards • 3G Partnership Projects • ITU • Other fora and consortia • Current hot topics

  4. What’s Life Like … • Only a few years ago … • Most people can’t do without their mobile phones • Content is mostly on DVDs/magazines/books/local hard-disk • Contact lists are mostly still by application/device/individual situation

  5. What’s Life Like … • Only a few years ago … • Most people can’t do without their mobile phones • Content is mostly on DVDs/magazines/books/local hard-disk • Contact lists are mostly still by application/device/individual situation • Last year … • Everyone’s connected: can’t do without being on-line • The first place people go for content is on-line • Social networks and open sharing proliferate

  6. What’s Life Like … • Only a few years ago… • Most people can’t do without their mobile phones • Content is mostly on DVDs/magazines/books/local hard-disk • Contact lists are mostly still by application/device/individual situation • Last year … • Everyone’s connected: can’t do without being on-line • The first place people go for content is on-line • Social networks and open sharing proliferate • Tomorrow … (Today?) • Everyone and everything is connected all the time, everywhere • The only place people go for content is on-line • Ubiquitous social networks

  7. What’s Life Like … • Only a few years ago ... • Most people can’t do without their mobile phones • Content is mostly on DVDs/magazines/books/local hard-disk • Contact lists are mostly still by application/device/individual situation • Last year … • Everyone’s connected: can’t do without being on-line • The first place people go for content is on-line • Social networks and open sharing proliferate • Tomorrow … (Today?) • Everyone and everything is connected all the time, everywhere • The only place people go for content is on-line • Ubiquitous social networks Today’s technology savvy young person is tomorrow’s key decision maker at home and at work, and the target customer!

  8. What’s Life Like … • Only a few years ago ... • Most people can’t do without their mobile phones • Content is mostly on DVDs/magazines/books/local hard-disk • Contact lists are mostly still by application/device/individual situation • Last year … • Everyone’s connected: can’t do without being on-line • The first place people go for content is on-line • Social networks and open sharing proliferate • Tomorrow … (Today?) • Everyone and everything is connected all the time, everywhere • The only place people go for content is on-line • Ubiquitous social networks This is you! Today’s technology savvy young person is tomorrow’s key decision maker at home and at work, and the target customer!

  9. Scale of telecoms business – micro view • Do you have a mobile phone? • No: ____ • Yes: ____; More than one? ____ • Does your mobile phone have data capabilities (more than SMS: i.e., email, browser, etc.)? • Yes: ____ • No: ____ • What is your typical monthly bill? • <$40: ____ • $40-60: ____ • $60-100: ____ • >$100: ____

  10. Something to keep in mind about statistics ... • "Lies, damned lies, and statistics” • Part of a phrase attributed to Benjamin Disraeli and popularised by Samuel Clemens (aka Mark Twain):"There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies, and statistics.” • Ref: link • Refers to the persuasive power of numbers, the use of statistics to bolster weak arguments, and the tendency of people to disparage statistics that do not support their positions.

  11. Scale of telecoms business – macro view • Canadian telecom market revenue (2011): CAD$42.7B (link) • Wireline • 19.4M subscriptions • Revenue: CAD$23.5B declining at 0.5% p.a. • Wireless • 27.9M subscriptions (phones, tablets, …) • Revenue: CAD$20.4B growing at 6.5% p.a. • Wireless only 12.8% (2011; 2012 figure not available) Doesn’t quite add up! Doesn’t quite add up! Doesn’t quite add up!

  12. Scale of telecoms business – macro view • USA • Wireline: • 141M subscriptions • Revenue: $176B (includes wireline, broadband, TV) • Wireless (CTIA link): • 326.4M subscriptions (phones, tablets, …) • Revenue: US$335B • Wireless only: 38.2% of households (Idaho 52.3%) • Wireless data: 1.468x1012 bytes (2012) • Telecoms employs >1M people (CTIA*: 3.8M directly & indirectly) 1984 CTIA = Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association formed 2000 Merged with the Wireless Data Forum and became the Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association 2004 changed name to CTIA-The Wireless Association

  13. Scale of telecoms business – macro view • Global telecom/ICT spending: ~US$2.1T in 2012 (ITU link) • Expected to reach US$2.7T by 2017

  14. Scale of telecoms business – macro view • Global telecom/ICT spending: ~US$2.1T in 2012 (link) • Expected to reach US$2.7T by 2017 OPEC 2012 Revenue:US$982B (link)

  15. Scale of telecoms business – macro view • Global telecom/ICT spending: ~US$2.1T in 2012 (link) • Expected to reach US$2.7T by 2017 OPEC 2012 Revenue:US$982B (link) Telecoms is BIG BUSINESS!

  16. Changing Communications Landscape Enterprise-Driven Hardware-Centric Wireline People to Machines Peripheral Security Proprietary Interfaces Consumer-Driven Software-Centric Wireless Machine to Machine Embedded Open (incl. Policy) Trusted Converging to a new target!

  17. Changing Communications Landscape Global scale requires global standards! Enterprise-Driven Hardware-Centric Wireline People to Machines Peripheral Security Proprietary Interfaces Consumer-Driven Software-Centric Wireless Machine to Machine Embedded Open (incl. Policy) Trusted Convergence to a new target

  18. Megatrends Wired Applications • Mega trends aredefining a new era: • Hyper-connectivity • Network-awareapplications andapplications-awarenetworks • True Broadband • Technology is all about enabling users to do what they want to do Enterprise Carrier Infrastructure Wireless The future will be ever more Hyperconnected!

  19. Outline ??? • Why are mobile communications systems standards so important? • Some history of relevant standards • 3G Partnership Projects • ITU • Other fora and consortia • Hot topics

  20. Why are mobile communications systems standards important (1/2)? • Users want to stay in touch • wherever they are • whatever they are doing • all the time • Competing and co-operating service providers • Trend: fewer devices for all needs • Moving toward one device for everything, with enough capability to support all tasks • Scarce radio spectrum resources • expensive: must use efficiently, must co-exist with other users Apple iPhone 5s Today’s telephone system is an outstanding accomplishment: global standards enable any phone to connect to any other phone anywhere within seconds!

  21. Why are mobile communications systems standards important (2/2)? • Significant effort is needed to track a moving user • Basic ideas are straightforward but procedures toactually support radio access handovers, mobilitymanagement, authentication, etc., are complex • Consider the programming needed to accomplisha simple task for a human, such as having amachine turn a page in a book • Common and consistent solutions are essentialto a positive end user experience • Service experience should remainconsistent while roaming • An advanced engineering degreeshould not be a prerequisite forusing a mobile phone!

  22. Traditional fixed telecoms overtaken by mobile I • The number of mobile subscribers surpassed the number of fixed subscribers worldwide in 2002 • In some markets, notably Africa, mobile users are >>90% of the subscriber base • Extraordinary demand for mobile service in China, India: • China Mobile: 772M (Jan 2014 - link) • China Unicom: 284M (Jan 2013 – link) • China total exceeded 1B in Mar 2012 (link) • Added 119.2M wireless subscribers in year ending Mar 2011 • India: 929.4M, 77% teledensity (May 2012 – link) • Added 227.27M wireless subscribers in year ending Mar 2011 • Expect mobile subscriber base to reach 1.159B in 2013 • Most of EU, >50% of subs are mobile; market is saturated at ~300M subscribers

  23. Traditional fixed telecoms overtaken by mobile II • Mobile subscribers > fixed subscribers worldwide in 2002 • North America lagged but has more than caught up • Was: best fixed infrastructure with low rates vs. high mobile tariffs • Now: best 4G/LTE mobile infrastructure: willing, able to pay rates • Internet usage, broadband access continue to climb • Access essential to any Information Society knowledge job • USA: 55% of mobile users do more than voice and this is growing rapidly with the high growth rate of smart phones • Real issues in “silent data” (calendar, etc., “push” updates) • Europe: smart phones expected to >148M in 2013 (link) • High speed access increasingly the norm • Korea: 100+% penetration - you can get 85M b/s to your home

  24. Japan’s Telecom Evolution Over 16 Years • 130.1M MOBILE subscriptions for population of 127.4M (Feb 2013) • Fixed lines decline accelerating • ISDN declining (slow internet access!) • Radio Paging effectively gone • IP phones: 0 in 2002, >20M in 2008! • Ref: (link) 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002200320042005200620072008 2009 2010

  25. Mobile Revolution – Morocco • Deregulation and competition are enablers • 2003 1.219M fixed 7.333M mobile total 8.552M • 20051.341M fixed12.393M mobiletotal 13.734M • 20061.266M fixed16.005M mobiletotal17.271M • 20093.516M fixed 25.311M mobile total 28.827M • 20113.749M fixed 31.928M mobile total36.554M • 2012 3.28M fixed 39.018M mobile total42.298M

  26. Mobile Revolution – Morocco • Deregulation and competition are enablers • 2003 1.219M fixed 7.333M mobile total 8.552M • 2005 1.341M fixed 12.393M mobile total 13.734M • 2006 1.266M fixed 16.005M mobile total 17.271M • 2009 3.516M fixed 25.311M mobile total 28.827M • 2011 3.749M fixed 31.928M mobile total 36.554M • 2012 3.28M fixed 39.018M mobile total 42.298M

  27. Outline • Why are mobile communications systems standards so important? • Some history of relevant standards • 3G Partnership Projects • ITU • Other fora and consortia • Hot topics

  28. Basic Fixed Network Reference Model • Advanced Intelligent Network includes centralized service control (SCP) • Identical model for ISDN LE Tel LE SCP LELocal Exchange TETransit Exchange SCP Service Control Point Note: LEs and TEs may be SSPs able to interact with SCPs TE

  29. Basic Mobile Network Reference Model • NRM for D-AMPS is relatively simple • Identical for TDMA and CDMA • Almost identical to GSM NRM VLR VLR SCP UIM CSS BS MSC HLR AC NRM Network Reference Model UIM User Identity Module CSSCellular Subscriber Station BSBase Station MSCMobile Switching Center HLRHome Location Register VLRVisitor Location Register EIREquipment Identity Register ACAuthentication Center MSC PSTN ISDN EIR

  30. Providing mobile service from a fixed network ... ... requires considerable additional infrastructure! But providing fixed service from a mobile network ... ... just attach the terminal to the wall! Things are much simpler when the subscriber’s terminal is hard wired to the exchange! • Should a mobile network be considered just an access network? Or a full network on its own? • Lesson: watch out for hidden assumptions • Ferret them out! • Validate, correct or discard them!

  31. Wireless Industry Standards • North American Cellular/PCS • Began as a single analog system • Evolved into multiple competing technologies (TDMA, CDMA, etc.) • Principle goals: higher capacity and lower cost • Used primarily in Pan-American countries, Asia-Pacific (Korea, Japan, China) • GSM • Began as a multiple incompatible systems with the Nordic countries leading the way • Evolved to a single Digital Pan-European standard specified by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) • Principle goal: pan-European roaming • Very successful: used world-wide

  32. Cellular Technologies (1/2) • First Generation • AMPS (FDMA) • Second Generation • DAMPS (TDMA) • CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data) • GSM • IS-95 and IS-95A CDMA • Late 70’s 600 bps status / messaging • Mid 80’s 2.4 Kbps status / messaging • Late 80’s 4.8 Kbps wide area two-way data • Early 90’s 9.6 Kbps two-way data; 9.6 Kb/s fax • Mid 90’s 19.2 Kbps wide area two way data • ....

  33. Cellular Technologies (2/2) Limited agreement onwhat 3G is: 2G+, 2.5G, 3.14159G (πG), …, • Third Generation • EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution) • GPRS (Generalized Packet Radio Service) • 1XRTT (1 x Radio Transmission Technology) • W-CDMA (UMTS) (Universal Mobile Terrestrial System) • CDMA2000 1XEVDO, 1XEVDV • Fourth Generation • LTE • 3GPP LTE-Advanced • 3GPP2 TEF • Wi-Fi! • WiMAX • Mesh? • Grid? • Ad Hoc Networks? • Device-to-Device discovery? • ... • Early 2000’s 144 Kbps (mobile) 384 Kbps (pedestrian) 2048 Kbps (fixed) • Future up to (and beyond) 1 Gbps!

  34. Wireless Evolution Ref: (link)

  35. 4G Transition Well Underway … • 3GPP GSM operators are switching to KLTE • 3GPP2 CDMA2000 specifications won’t disappear any time soon but little or no growth compared to LTE • Key CDMA2000 operators switching to LTE radio, 3GPP network • AT&T & Verizon (USA): LTE now • KDDI (Japan): LTE now • CDMA2000 EV-DO Rev. B Multicarrier for voice • LTE for data (all Japan as of end 2012) • WiMAX (all Japan) • With Ruckus: 100K Wi-Fi hot spots (all Japan) • Others coming rapidly: • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_LTE_networks

  36. 3GPP Long Term Evolution Country Map As of 2014 02 15 Ref: (link)

  37. 4G in Canada • Rogers, Telus, Bell Mobility, SaskTel, MTS, Wind, Videotron, but not Shaw (Wi-Fi instead)

  38. Outline • Why are mobile communications systems standards so important? • Some history of relevant standards • 3G Partnership Projects • ITU • Other fora and consortia • Hot topics

  39. What are the 3GPPs? • Collaborative agreements among SDOs and related bodies for the production of complete sets of globally applicable specifications for: • a 3G system based on evolved GSM core network and UTRA, FDD and TDD modes • a 3G system based on evolved ANSI-41core network with a cdma2000 access network • Open to the individual members who belong to each Organizational Partner

  40. TIA IMT-2000 Standards:a Global Partnership IMT-2000 / IMT-Advanced GSM-based UMTS/E-UTRAN/LTE + IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) ITU-R WP 5D ITU-T SG 13 ITU-D SG 2 ARIB /TTC ATIS TTA IS-41 + CDMA2000 + Multimedia Domain (MMD)

  41. What is 3GPP? • A partnership of 6 regional Standards Development Organizations (SDOs) • SDOs transpose 3GPP specs into regional standards • ITU references the regional standards • 3GPP also includes Market Representation Partners who advise on market perspectives GSM GPRS EDGE W-CDMA UMTS HSPA HSPA+ LTE LTE-Advanced

  42. How do the 3GPPs work? • Organizational Partners and Market Representation Partners Steer the work • Main technical work is done by the Individual Members (companies) • Individual Members are the Operators, Manufacturers and Regulators in the industry • Only Individual Members can participate in the technical work • 3GPP has 390 Individual Members from all over the world (Mar 2014) – a continuing strong and vital body • 3GPP2 has 27 Individual Members (as of Mar 2013) (37 one year ago) • In maintenance mode

  43. 3GPPs’ Internal Structure Program Coordination Group Steering Committee TSG-SA TSG-CT TSG-SX TSG-AC TSG-RAN TSG-GERAN TSG-A TSG-C SA Service and System Aspects RAN Radio Access network GERAN GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network CT Core Network and Terminals SXCombined former S (Service and System Aspects) and X (Core Networks) ACCombined former A (Access Network Interfaces) and C (cdma2000)

  44. >4000 delegate-days at 3GPP meetings each month! • About 1,700 cumulative “delegate-meeting-years” since Jan 1999! 3GPP Structure Details Project Co-ordination Group (PCG) TSG GERAN GSM EDGE Radio Access Network TSG RAN Radio Access Networks TSG SA Services & System Aspects TSG CT Core Network & Terminals RAN WG1 Radio Layer 1 SA WG1 Services CT WG1 MM/CC/SM (lu) GERAN WG1 Radio Aspects CT WG3 Interworking with External Networks GERAN WG2 Protocol Aspects RAN WG2 Radio Layer2 and Layer3 RR SA WG2 Architecture GERAN WG3 Terminal Testing GERAN WG3 Terminal Testing SA WG3 Security RAN WG3 lub, lur, lu specs; UTRAN O&M reqts. CT WG4 MAP/GTP/BCH/SS SA WG4 Codec CT WG6 Smart Card Appln. Aspects RAN WG4 Radio Performance & Protocol Aspects SA WG5 Telecom Mgmt RAN WG5 Mobile Terminal Conform. Testing

  45. 3GPPs and ITU Represented in International Recommendations Regulators/ Governments 3GPP/3GPP2 Mandates ITU PARTNERS 3GPP: Project Co-ordination Group 3GPP2: Steering Committee Contributions via existing processes Organizational Partners Market Representation Partners Technical Specification Groups INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS Technical Contributions Support Functions Technical Specifications Organizational Partners’ Standardization Process Organizational Partners’ deliverables

  46. 3GPP Release Timeline (1/2) • 3GPP synchronizes specification development into releases • Releases cover the areas of: • Accesses (GSM, EDGE, HSPA, LTE, LTE-Advanced, etc.) • Core Network (GSM Core, EPC) • Services (IMS, MMTel, M2M, etc. See list of Active Work Items) R9 R8 R10 R11 R6 R7 R5 R99 R4 2010 2011 2006 2009 2012 2004 2005 2007 2008 2003 2000 2001 2002 LTE LTE Adv HSPA + HSPA UL HSPA DL UMTS EPC • Release 11 Time Plan: • Stage 1 freeze – Sept 2011 • Stage 2 freeze – March 2012 • Stage 3 freeze – Sept 2012 IMS Comm IMS MMTel

  47. 3GPP Release Timeline (2/2) • Release 12 saw a major issue in work overload • Resulted in 12 “Exceptions” due to inability to complete work on schedule, 9 to Mar 2014, 3 to Jun 2014 • Release 13 work in stage 1 has limited content but stage 2 Exceptions are delaying Release 13 work and so may result in the same problem R12 R13 R9 R8 R10 R11 R6 R7 R5 R99 R4 2010 2011 2006 2009 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2004 2005 2007 2008 2003 2000 2001 2002 LTE LTE Adv HSPA + HSPA UL HSPA DL UMTS EPC • Release 12 Time Plan: • Stage 1 freeze – Mar 2013 • Stage 2 freeze – Dec 2013 • Stage 3 freeze – Sep 2014 • Release 13 Time Plan: • Stage 1 freeze – Sep 2014 • Stage 2 freeze – Jun 2015 • Stage 3 freeze – Dec 2015 IMS Comm IMS MMTel

  48. 3GPP Timeline for Releases 11, 12, 13 Stage1: service requirements Stage 2: Architecture and information flows Stage 3: Protocols ASN.1 freeze: one quarter later • Release 11 • Sep 2011: Freeze stage 1 • Mar 2012: Freeze stage 2 • Sep 2012: Freeze stage 3 • Release 12 • Mar 2013: Freeze stage 1 • Dec 2013: Freeze stage 2 • Jun 2014: Freeze stage 3 • Release 13 • Sep 2014: Freeze stage 1 • Jun 2015: Freeze stage 2 • Dec 2015: Freeze stage 3 SA #62 Busan, S. Korea 9-11 Dec 2013 I was there -representing KDDI

  49. 3GPP Home Page

  50. 3GPP2 Home Page