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Machines that Make machines

Machines that Make machines

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Machines that Make machines

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  1. Cornell University College of Engineering Computational Synthesis Lab http://ccsl.mae.cornell.edu Machines that Make machines Hod Lipson Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Computing & Information Science Cornell University

  2. The two meta-challenges of Engineering: • Design a machines that can design other machines • Make a machine that can make other machines

  3. Machines that Design Machines Lipson & Pollack, Nature 406, 2000

  4. Need more design space

  5. FabLab in a box • Fablabers are distinguished by disciplinary desegregation • Lots of machines can make parts of other machines • Is there a universal fabricator? • Top down approaches • Bottom up approaches

  6. Printable Machines

  7. The Universal Fabricator On a single machine • Make arbitrary shapes / structure • preassembled mechanisms and parts • Make arbitrary circuits • Sensing, processing, power and actuation • Achieve large range of functionalities • Use large range of materials • Increase design space • Afforded by co-fabrication

  8. Analog vs. Digital Continuous paths Volume Fill High-resolution patterning, mixing Thin films (60nm)

  9. Printed Active Materials Some of our printed electromechanical / biological components: (a) elastic joint (b) zinc-air battery (c) metal-alloy wires, (d) IPMC actuator, (e) polymer field-effect transistor, (f) thermoplastic and elastomer parts, (g) cartilage cell-seeded implant in shape of sheep meniscus from CT scan. With Evan Malone

  10. Zinc-Air Batteries With Megan Berry

  11. IPMC Actuators

  12. Multi-material 3D Printer CAT Scan Direct 3D Print after 20 min. Sterile Cartridge Printed Agarose Meniscus Cell Impregnated Alginate Hydrogel With Larry Bonassar, Daniel Cohen

  13. The Universal Fabricator: Parallel to the Universal Computer • In the 60’s, a computer • Cost > $100,000 • Size: Refrigerator • Speed: Hours/job • Operation: Trained staff • Usability: Maintenance intensive • Today: • Faster, cheaper, better, easier Digital PDP-11, 1969 Stratasys FDM Vantage, 2005

  14. Exponential Growth RP Machine Sales Source: Wohlers Associates, 2004 report

  15. Critical Mass • The computer took off when it infiltrated the home market • Solved the chicken and egg problem: • People were motivated to write software for their own needs because there was available hardware • People were motivated to buy hardware because there was software to run on it

  16. The First Home Computer • ALTAIR 8800 microcomputer kit (1975) • $397 (2MHz, 256 bytes RAM) Generally credited with launching the PC revolution

  17. Fab@Home Low cost, hackable, fablabable, open source

  18. Bottom-up Fabrication

  19. Self-assembling machines Stochastic Systems: scale in size, limited complexity Modular Robotics:high complexity, do not scale in size • Fukuda et al: CEBOT, 1988 • Yim et al: PolyBot, 2000 • Chiang and Chirikjian, 1993 • Rus et al, 1998, 2001 • Murata et al: Fracta, 1994 • Murata et al, 2000 • Jørgensen et al: ATRON, 2004 • Zykov & Lipson, 2005 • Whitesides et al, 1998 • Winfree et al, 1998

  20. Dynamically Programmable Self Assembly

  21. Construction Sequence High Pressure Low Pressure

  22. Construction Sequence

  23. Construction Sequence

  24. Construction Sequence

  25. Construction Sequence

  26. Construction Sequence

  27. Reconfiguration Sequence

  28. Reconfiguration Sequence

  29. Implementation 2 Embossed fluid manifold Inside of the cube: • Servo- actuated valves • Basic Stamp II controller • Central fluid manifold • Communication, power transmission lines Hermaphroditic interface Orifices for fluid flow With Paul White, Victor Zykov

  30. Implementation 2: Fluidic Bonding Movie accelerated x16 With Paul White, Victor Zykov

  31. 300 µm With David Erickson, Mike Tolley

  32. Cornell University College of Engineering Computational Synthesis Lab http://ccsl.mae.cornell.edu Conclusions • Universal Designer • Universal fabricator • Makes shapes, circuits, sensors, actuators, energy & information processing • Top-down approach • Printable machines • Bottom-Up approach • Dynamical self–assembly

  33. Credits Viktor Zykov Evan Malone Mike Tolley Daniel Cohen Also: Paul White, David Erickson