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Emerging Issues and Dilemmas

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Emerging Issues and Dilemmas

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  1. Emerging Issues and Dilemmas

  2. Orientation • Developmental dilemmas and general maps of the future • Reworking existing maps for personal leadership journey • Yukl's integrative framework – the role of power and influence of context • Rost's guide for leadership in 21st Century

  3. Yukl's map of the future • Measuring and conceptualizing the leadership process • Leaders influence and are influenced by specifics of situation • Major issues • simplistic either/or thinking models of leadership • omission of relevant behaviours • focus on 'one-to-one' leader/follower processes • questionable methodologies for measuring leadership

  4. Emerging Themes and Conclusions • Enthusiasm of 'new leadership' led to abandonment of critical earlier concepts • Concept of distributed leadership overpowered by the new charismatic leader • Adverse consequences of ego driven charismatic leaders • Awareness of ethical dilemmas and multiple obligations of leaders

  5. Rost's Map of 21st Century Leadership • Rost critical of faulty foundations for much leadership theory • Lack of definitional clarity • leadership used to indicate a special kind of management • Fallacy of industrial paradigm • leadership seen as good management perpetuates norms of industrial era

  6. Rost's Universal definition "Leadership is an influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real changes that reflect their mutual purposes" • Leadership needs to reinvent itself through a universal and multidisciplinary approach

  7. Critque of Rost's view • Thrust of Rost's arguments support transformational leadership approach • Appeal of leadership as a more flexible, distributed and collaborative concept • Criticized for inadequate treatment of ethical dilemmas of leadership at work • Avoids deeper issues of nature of 'real' leaders • Rost offers a starting point for the journey – rather than a complete map

  8. Social Cognition & Social Identity • How does a leader help followers make sense of their world? • Individuals develop shared beliefs and values through process of social cognition • Emerging leadership theory deals with how group members develop sense of social identity • self-categorization –gives individual behaviour a distinct meaning • Social Identity important part of a person's sense of who they are within group membership

  9. Prototypicality & 'extra-ordinariness' dilemma • Accepted leaders are prototypical in-group members • prototypical leader best epitomizes the social category of which a member • Followers look for leaders who are prototypical of the map of their idealized selves • High consensus groups - individuals shape own sense of identity with perceptions of group identity • Effective leaders are articulate, embody and direct the social identity-based interests shared with group members

  10. Dilemma of prejudiced leader • Effective leaders create, coordinate and control shared sense of 'we-ness' • Leaders make biased judgements of subordinates • Dominance supported through stereotyping and derogating practices • Success also through power relationships • Such strategies always vulnerable to followers’ reflections and reappraisal of leader’s worth

  11. Emotional intelligence and leadership • Emotional intelligence (EI) deals with ‘affective skills’ such as empathy, awareness of impact of self on others • As with leadership, issues of definitional clarity, and measurement reliability and validity remain • EI claimed to be a stronger predictor of leader competence than IQ • Empirical evidence of this claim can be shown to be dubious • Concept offers to strengthen leadership maps that have ignored ‘non-cognitive’ leadership factors

  12. Summary • Leadership maps have become more complex, and interpretive • The heroic leader has become a problematic concept (dark side etc) • Emerging perspectives include shift from individual to social identity mapping • Power, trust, and other non-cognitive mappings (e.g. emotional intelligence) also worth the attention of leaders of the future • Each leader has responsibility to create his or her map through reflecting on and challenging existing maps