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The Rise of Feudalism

The Rise of Feudalism

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The Rise of Feudalism

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  1. The Rise of Feudalism

  2. Life After Charlemagne • Charlemagne dies in 814 • His empire is divided amongst his three sons • During the Ninth and Tenth Centuries: • Invasions by Muslims, Magyars, and Vikings cause a breakdown of royal government • When royal governments could no longer protect the people, landed nobles offered protection in exchange for service – this system is called FEUDALISM

  3. Feudalism • A warrior could take an oath of loyalty to a lord and become aVASSAL • Lords would provide land and financial support to the vassal, and the vassal would fight for the lord • The grant of land to a vassal was called a FIEF • It was possible for a lord to be a vassal of a higher lord! Even kings could be vassals of more powerful kings!

  4. A Code of Honor • FEUDAL CONTRACT: the set of rules that determined how the lord-vassal relationship worked • How long military service lasted • What forms of payments were necessary • What duties and obligations lords and vassals had • Under the influence of the church, vassals were united under a code called knighthood • This institution included a code of conduct that governed civilized behavior called CHIVALRY

  5. Chivalry • Chivalry was the code of ethics all knights were supposed to uphold • Knights were never to fight on Sunday and the Feast Days of the church (The Truce of God) • They were to respect churches, clergy, the poor (The Peace of God) • Knights were to fight only for glory • Treat captives as honored guests • Defend the honor of women and those who could not defend themselves

  6. Day of Infamy • October 14, 1066: William of Normandy launches an invasion against England • The Battle of Hastings: William the Conquerer defeats Harold Godwinson and establishes a new British monarchy • This is one of the most important days in the history of Western Civilization

  7. The Transition to Democracy • Democracy had fallen in Europe with the rise of Rome • ABSOLUTE MONARCHIESwere ruled by kings with total power over their subjects • THE DIVINE RIGHT OF KINGS: the idea that a king’s power comes directly from God • Henry II of England goes (a bit) too far with this when he “accidentally arranges” the murder of Thomas a Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury

  8. Magna Carta, 1215 • English nobles resent the growing power of the British king • Runnymeade, 1215: British nobles force King John to sign Magna Carta, conferring basic rights to the lords and limits the monarch’s power • The United States Constitution was directly influenced by this document

  9. The Rise of Parliament • 1295: Edward I invites two knights and two residents from each county to meet with the Great Council • The Great Council consisted of nobles, bishops and officials • The Great Council eventually became the House of Lords • The company of knights and county residents eventually became the House of Commons • The British Parliament is the most important advance in government since republican government under Rome