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7 th period Biblical Allusions

7 th period Biblical Allusions

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7 th period Biblical Allusions

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  1. Biblical Allusion [bib-li-kuh l uh-loo-zhuh n ]:a reference within a literary work to a story, idea, or event that is related in the Bible or other biblical writings. 7th period Biblical Allusions Mrs. Nartker Honors English 11

  2. The Bible First it is divided into two parts • The Bible is divided into two parts; the first is known as the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament, and the second part is known as the New Testament. (Note that "Old Testament“ is the term used by most Christians, but scholars consider it more accurate to use the term "Hebrew Bible.") • Each Testament further divides into individual books, and each book divides into chapters. • The writings of the Bible contain a diverse array of literary forms, including poetry, prose, myth, legend, history, hymns, love stories, letters, religious and secular law, proverbs, and prophecy. • The Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) describes the religious life and history of ancient Israel before the birth of Christ, while the New Testament deals with the life of Christ, with the expansion of the early Church after his death, and with much of the doctrine of Christianity.

  3. Hebrew Bible/ Old Testament • GenesisExodusLeviticusNumbersDeuteronomyJoshuaJudgesRuthFirst book of SamuelSecond book of SamuelFirst book of KingsSecond book of KingsFirst book of ChroniclesSecond Book of ChroniclesEzraNehemiahEstherJobPsalmsProverbsEcclesiastes Song of Solomon IsaiahJeremiahLamentationsEzekielDanielHoseaJoelAmosObadiahJonahMicahNahumHabakkukZephaniahHaggaiZechariahMalachi.

  4. New Testament • Matthew • Mark • Luke • John • Acts • Romans • 1 Corinthians • 2 Corinthians • Galatians • Ephesians • Philippians • Colossians • 1 Thessalonians • 2 Thessalonians • 1 Timothy • 2 Timothy • Titus • Philemon • Hebrews • James • 1 Peter • 2 Peter • 1 John • 2 John • 3 John • Jude • Revelation

  5. Cain and Abel Rebekah Sebastian - 7

  6. The Basic Story Cain and Abel were sons of Adam and Eve. Abel offered the Lord the firstborns of his flock of sheep. Cain, as a tiller, offered the Lord fruit. The Lord respects Abel because, in the Bible, a person who is a keeper of sheep is faithful. The Lord rewards Abel with land to rule. Jealous, Cain takes Abel into the fields and murders him. When the Lord asks Cain where his brother is, he replies “I know not: Am I my brother’s keeper” (Genesis 4:9). As a punishment, the Lord tells Cain that the land will no longer work in his favor when he cultivates it. Cain will be a fugitive, wandering the earth. Cain says this punishment is too great and the Lord responds by placing a mark on Cain so that he shall not be killed by anyone who comes across him.

  7. Why Alluded/Examples The story of Cain and Abel is alluded to show how time and time again, jealousy takes over people and causes them to do things they would not normally do. Toy Story - In Toy Story, Woody pushed Buzz out the window. He does this because he is jealous of Buzz and the fact that Buzz has taken his title of “favorite toy” away from him. McBeth - In Shakespeare’s play, McBeth is jealous of the king. Because McBeth thinks he can do a better job than King Duncan, he murders the king.

  8. The Birth of Moses From the Bible story Exodus Basic Story: When Moses was born, the Israelites were slaves of the Pharoah in Egypt. Any boys that were born were being killed to prevent any opposition to the Pharoah. Because of this, his mother hid him for 3 months, and then put him in an ark made of bulrushes and set him in the river. The Pharoah’s daughter found him, gave him to his mother for nursing, and then took him back to raise him. She raised him at the Pharoah’s house until he killed an Egyptian and the troubles began. Significance: After many years, Moses would part the Red Sea and help the Israelites reach saftey (he would never make it there though) Allusions: The Grapes of Wrath: A child is put in a basket and sent down the Nile Bruce Almighty: Bruce parts a bowl of tomato soup The Lion King: The entire movie is basically an allusion to the story of Moses

  9. The Birth of Moses What does the story tell us? Many allusions to Moses involve floating down the river. However, later in his life he was called on by God to led his people to safety, but he questions God – he does not think he is good enough. Therefore, allusions to Moses could help show a character that is struggling with self-confidence and won’t believe in his/herself • “An Eye for an Eye” • From Matthew 5:38 • From the Code of Hammurabi (King of Babylon) • Meaning: For every wrongdoing, there must be equal compensation • Look For: • Baby floating down river • Ark made of bulrushes • Burning bush (alludes to his later life, not his birth)

  10. Stephanie Nicholls period 7 Historical Context: The story of Moses and the Burning Bush is found in the Bible in the book of Exodus chapter 3. It is also referenced in the book of Acts chapter 7. Moses and the Burning Bush The burning bush is alluded to in many cultures because it was a powerful attention grabbing symbol of hope used to motivate and inspire for a great purpose. Explanation: Moses was tending his father-in-law, Jethro’s, flock in the region of Midian near Mount Horeb. An angel of the Lord appeared to Moses in the form of a burning bush that was not consumed by the fire. God called out to Moses warning him to not come any closer and to remove his sandals because he was standing on holy ground. God told Moses that he had seen the suffering of his people which were in Egypt under the oppressive rule of Pharaoh. God told Moses to go and set the Israelites free and bring them to a prosperous land. Moses did not understand why he was chosen, but he was obedient and did what God asked. Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck “The Truth” by Handsome Boy Modeling School • “The powers that be…” • This phrase refers to the established authority or government • Mentioned in the book of Romans chapter 13 verse 1 • This is alluded to in society to remind people of the law and authority that governs them.

  11. What is it? Moses guided the Israelites out of Egypt where they were slaves to the Egyptians. The Egyptians pursued the Israelites after they fled knowing that the Red Sea would trap the Israelites. With the Lord’s help, Moses split the water of the sea creating a path to the land on the other side of The Red Sea. Moses Parts the Red Sea Moses by Coldplay “Come on now, don't you want to see? This thing that's happening to me Like Moses has power over sea So you've got power over me” Where is the Story Found? The story of Moses and the Red Sea is written in the bible in The Book of Exodus, going through chapters 13:17-14:29. This story is also in the Qur’an in Surah 26. Bruce Almighty- Splitting the Tomato Soup

  12. This story is often referred to because most people, even if they aren’t Christian, are aware that the ten commandments are what God told people to follow. This story tells people how to live their lives as believers in God. Moses on the Mount Matthew 22:14 “Many are called but few are chosen” This phrase comes from what Jesus said at a king’s wedding when everyone had been invited, but those who disliked the king or couldn’t make time for him wouldn’t come. Everyone is invited into the Kingdom of God but only those who accept Christ into their lives will be there. Exodus 19-24 The basics: The people Moses were with had just been brought out of Egypt by the power of God. God told Moses to come up to Mount Sinai so Moses could receive instructions. The mountain was covered with a cloud of smoke. There, God gave the ten commandments which told everyone the basic rules to follow and were written down on stone tablets. They all agreed to these commandments and told God that they would do whatever he asked. Moses was the one who was communicating directly with God. He spent 40 days and 40 nights on the Mount.

  13. Allusions • In Animal Farm by George Orwell, the animals created their “Seven Commandments” that all of them had to follow. They were guidelines for how they were to live and what they were to do and not to do. These alluded strongly to the Ten Commandments when Moses was on the Mount. • In The Invention of Lying, the main character writes down his ideas about “The Man in the Sky” and religion on two pizza boxes in a similar fashion to Moses and the stone tablets.

  14. “In my father’s house are many mansions” (John 14:2). • Room for all to live The Tower of Babel “Now the whole earth had one language and the same words. 2And as they migrated from the east,* they came upon a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there. 3And they said to one another, ‘Come, let us make bricks, and burn them thoroughly.’ And they had brick for stone, and bitumen for mortar. 4Then they said, ‘Come, let us build ourselves a city, and a tower with its top in the heavens, and let us make a name for ourselves; otherwise we shall be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth.’ 5The Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which mortals had built. 6And the Lord said, ‘Look, they are one people, and they have all one language; and this is only the beginning of what they will do; nothing that they propose to do will now be impossible for them. 7Come, let us go down, and confuse their language there, so that they will not understand one another’s speech.’ 8So the Lord scattered them abroad from there over the face of all the earth, and they left off building the city. 9Therefore it was called Babel, because there the Lord confused* the language of all the earth; and from there the Lord scattered them abroad over the face of all the earth” (Genesis 11). • Pratchett’sDark Side of the Sun • Curse of Jargon • Lewis That Hideous Strength • Genetic experiments • The Amazing Spiderman • Oscorp Tower • Used as a symbol of punishing those who attempt to circumvent the rules to gain power. Picture courtesy of http://www.goodsalt.com/details/pppas0218.html

  15. Noah and the flood Historical/Cultural Context: The story of Noah and the flood is written in the Bible in the book of Genesis chapters 5-9. But the story is also evident in many other cultures and religions. Explanation: God sees man’s wickedness on Earth and decides to flood the Earth and kill everyone except Noah and His family because he is a righteous man. God tells Noah to build an ark and gather his family and a male and female of every kind of animal. The flood comes and all humanity is destroyed for 40 days and 40 nights. Noah sends out a white dove who brings back an olive branch signifying the flood was over. God then makes a covenant with all people in the sign of a rainbow that he will never again flood the earth. Things to look for….. 40 days and 40 nights Olive branch Pairs of animals Ark Flood Evan Almighty

  16. Joseph and His Brothers The Story: Joseph was the 11th son of Jacob (12 in total). Jacob loved Joseph and gave him a most colorful coat to show his love. Joseph's brothers became jealous and hateful towards Joseph, who also claimed to have dreams of his brothers bowing down to him. His brothers plotted to kill him. However, they instead sold him to a man from Egypt, who took Joseph and sold him to be a slave for the Pharaoh. Joseph interpreted the Pharaoh's dreams and helped to predict the 7 year famine that was to come. Because of this, Joseph was made to be person of great power in Egypt. Several years later, when the famine did indeed strike, Josephs brothers traveled to Egypt in search of food. Here, Joseph recognizes his brothers, but they do not recognize him. They bow to him, just as his dream predicted. Joseph then reveals himself as their brother and his family comes to live in Egypt. Alluded to: 1. In Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury, the city where books are burned is said to be wrapped up in a coat of a thousand colors. 2. In Robin Hood by J. Walker McSpadden, Robin Hood trades clothes with and old, poor man. The robe Robin Hood now wears is like Joseph's coat of many colors. History: The story of Joesph takes place in Genesis 37:1-11 Why?: Joseph, his brothers, and his coat are alluded to in literature to evoke the biblical story of Joseph. When his colorful coat is mentioned, it means that whatever is associated with the coat is favored or above the rest. It also means that this favored object is not universally liked, however, and that others are jealous of it. Both Robin Hood and the city in Fahrenheit 451 are special, or what is considered to be better. However, neither is favored by all, as Joseph was not favored by his brothers.

  17. The Holy Grail • Then: The Holy Grail was supposedly the cup that Jesus Christ drank out of at the last supper. Later it was used to collect Christ's blood and sweat while on the Cross. • Now: It has come to mean any sought after item or desired goal.

  18. Story : (605 B.C.) At a young age, Daniel was taken into captivity in Babylon. Throughout his life he stayed honest, kept his loyalty to God, and worked hard. As he grew old, he moved up the ranks and became an administrator in the kingdom. Other government officials were jealous of Daniel’s wisdom and power. They knew he never broke any laws, so the only way to have him removed from power was to make a new law that challenged his faith. It stated that anyone who prayed to God or worshipped someone other than the King Darius would be thrown into the lions den. Even though the King liked David and allowed Daniel to pray, the king liked the idea of increasing his power and signed off on the decree. Daniel stayed faithful and continued to pray to God, so he was thrown into the den of lions. King Darius tried to save Daniel, but he had already signed the decree. The King worried about Daniel all night. However, Daniel was found the next morning untouched by the lions. For falsely accusing Daniel, the king had the men, along with their wives and children, thrown into the lions den. They were immediately killed by the lions. "My God sent his angel, and he shut the mouths of the lions. They have not hurt me, because I was found innocent in his sight. Nor have I ever done any wrong before you, O king." (Daniel 6:22) • Examples: • The Merchant of Venice by Shakespeare • Shylock: “A Daniel come to judgment! yea, a Daniel!” • The Innocents Abroad by Mark Twain • “… intruding upon a scene like this, comes this fantastic mob of green-spectacled Yanks, with their flapping elbows and bobbing umbrellas! It is Daniel in the lion's den with a green cotton umbrella under his arm, all over again.” Daniel and the Den of Lions • Why is it Referenced? • “Daniel” • A person who was betrayed, wronged, or deceived. A person who has been thrown under the bus by another person. • “… in the lion’s den” • When a person finds themselves in a hostile environment or a very troubling/difficult situation. Book of Daniel, Chapter 6

  19. “Let there be light” In Hebrew and Aramaic, the word “light” can mean understanding. The idiom really means “Let there be an understanding.” It’s used to refer to the need for an enlightenment on a particular subject or controversy.

  20. Explanation Absalom was son of King David. He was very conceited, especially concerning his long flowing hair. After his brother, Amnon wronged his sister Tekoah, Absalom killed his brother. His father refused to see him for many years. At this time, the people began to support Absalom, who decided that he should take over the throne. Absalom and his followers met King David and his troops. Absalom’s men were quickly obliterated, and Absalom escaped on a mule. However, his hair got caught in a tree, and was killed by three darts. Quote: Ashes to ashes, dust to dust Refers to death making you one with the Earth again Absalom Context In the book of Samuel, after Saul is defeated by the Philistines. One of many religious and/or mythological references to a son’s rebellion. Examples: Cry, the Beloved Country by Alan Paton Absalom, Absalom by William Faulker • Things to look for: • Sons and fathers fighting • Three Darts

  21. Blind Leading the Blind: Refers to when a group of people believe that their “leader” knows what he/she is doing. It also means that some people when blindly follow someone, without any conviction. And the one who is leading could be just as clueless as the rest. Significance? It is often used to describe a person or community that will be punished and destroyed for their actions and sins. Lawless soundtrack: “Fire and Brimstone” Sodom and Gomorrah The Story: God, after observing the people of Sodom and Gomorrah, decided it was full of sinners and wrongdoers. He declared that the only way the people of Sodom and Gomorrah would be spared, was if his angels could find 10 righteous men. So the Lord sent the Angels to Sodom, who were then taken in by a man named Lot. However, after the three angelic men arrived, the people of Sodom demanded Lot bring the visitors to them for there pleasure. Lot refused, and the townsfolk began to use force. Lot was then saved by the three angels, and protected from the violence. God was furious, and punished the kingdoms of Sodom and Gomorrah. Lot was allowed to take his family to safety. God then sent sulfur and fire down from the Heavens, and destroyed the lands and plains of Sodom and Gomorrah. As they escaped, Lot’s wife turned to look back, and turned into a pillar of salt. Hemmingway’s The Garden of Eden

  22. Allusions in: Charles Dickens, The Tale of Two Cities The Office Many food pantries use the name Loaves and Fishes Things to look for: Loaves and fish Multiplying food Innocent offerings Loaves and Fishes Why referenced? God will take care of our needs if we give him the little that we have. Offer yourself and he can work miracles. Found in: Mark 6:41 Luke 9:16 Matthew 14:13-21 Explanation: Jesus has a group of around 5,ooo people sitting and listening to him and it is getting late. Jesus knows he should feed all instead of just sending them home hungry, but he does not have any food. An innocent boy brings him five loaves and two fish. Jesus breaks the bread and asks the disciples to pass it around. There is plenty of food for everyone with 12 baskets of fish and loaves left over.

  23. Found in: Jeremiah 11:19 Isaiah 53:7 In an unconcerned manner - unaware of the impending catastrophe. Lamb to the Slaughter Jeremiah But I was like a gentle lamb led to the slaughter; And I did not know that they had devised plots against me, {saying,} "Let us destroy the tree with its fruit, And let us cut him off from the land of the living, That his name be remembered no more." Isaiah He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth: he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he openeth not his mouth.

  24. Jacob’s Ladder • Description: In the beginning of the Bible (Genesis 28:10-19), Jacob is fleeing from his murderous brother Esau and stops to rest on the road. He falls asleep and dreams of a ladder leading to heaven. Angels ascend and descend this ladder, and even God himself appears at the top. The Lord speaks to Jacob, blessing him and proclaiming Jacob’s people to be the chosen ones. After Jacob awakes, he realizes that God is present in the area, and builds a city there – Bethel, which means “House of God.” • Allusions: • Jacob’s Ladder (1990 horror film) • Jacob’s Ladder children’s toy • “Jacob’s Ladder” (F. Scott Fitzgerald short story) • Significance: Many theologians believe that climbing the ladder represents the spiritual movement of a person’s soul to be closer to God. Jacob’s ladder represents the link between the Earth and heaven, which everyone should attempt to climb in order to reach spirituality.

  25. “Red sky at night, shepherd’s delight” • In Matthew 16:2-3, Jesus is speaking to the Pharisees and Sadducees, who are, like usual, trying to tempt him by asking for a sign from the heavens. He tells them in reply: • “When it is evening, ye say, It will be fair weather: for the sky is red. And in the morning, It will be foul weather to day: for the sky is red and lowering.” • This phrase was also taken up by Shakespeare, who uses it in the poem Venus and Adonis. • Like a red morn that ever yet betokened, wreck to the seaman - sorrow to the shepherds. • Although it is mainly superstition, many people believe in the proverb, using it to say that a red sky in the morning means a storm is coming, while a red sky at night predicts calm weather.

  26. Key phrases Waters of Babylon Wine of passion Immoral wines Evil desires Kings have slept with her Queen/Harlot Babylon Purple/scarlet cloth Great city of Babylon Historical Context This judgment of God against one the seven mentioned great cities describes the decline of a great city. Although historians state that the fall of the major trade center occurred over a series of years, not in a single hour, and that the fire is symbolic of the decline. Allusions the Fall of Babylon: the movie Scarlet Letter (to the Scarlet Babylon) The Fall of Babylon Explanation Discussed in Revelation 17-19, the fall of Babylon, a city prosperous by its many trade routes and centers, begins with a prophecy given by an angel saying “Babylon is fallen”. He speaks in past tense while warning God’s people to leave the harlot of Babylon. Babylon is described as a deceiving whore who has bewitched the people with comfort and luxuries (namely wine and sex) to sins. It was said that in a single day, a single hour, the city burned as God gave his judgment against the city, eradicating the sinful. The merchants were no longer rich as they watched the city burn. My Brother’s keeper: Is part of Cain’s response to God (after Cain killed his brother Abel out of jealousy) when God asks where Abel is. Cain said sneeringly or snarkily “Am I my brother’s keeper” in a term more like “zookeeper”. He was implying that his bother was beneath him in intelligence

  27. Significance: The story of Samson and Delilah is found in the book of Judges Chapter 16. References to this story can often mean a tragic love story of betrayal. Samson’s hair symbolizes strength, and he serves as a reminder to people that God is willing to forgive. Also, the name Delilah is usually associated with an attractive, treacherous woman. Samson and Delilah Samson was a Judge of the Israelites who had been given superhuman strength by God. One day Samson met Delilah and fell in love. The Philistine leaders, his enemies, offered money to Delilah to discover Samson’s weakness, so she constantly asked Samson for his secret. After lying to her several times, he finally revealed that his hair was the source of his strength. Delilah told the Philistines and they cut off his hair, capturing him. Samson’s eyes were gouged out and he was forced to work hard labor. Slowly, his hair started growing back as he turned to God. During a pagan sacrifice, Samson prayed for the strength to push down the pillars supporting the temple and did so, killing everyone. He destroyed more of his enemies in this one act than he had previously throughout his life. The Incredible Hulk comic books- a character named Doc Samson whose strength depended on his hair length “Fire” by Bruce Springsteen- mentions Samson and Delilah

  28. A drop in the bucket This phrase is found in the book of Isaiah 40:15. Foreign armies have surrounded God’s city, and the different nations are described as being a drop in the bucket. Even though it might seem like God’s people are a drop in the bucket of these mighty nations, it’s actually the nations are a drop in the God’s bucket. The phrase has come to mean something small and insignificant. It usually describes an effort or an action that has very little overall influence, especially when it’s compared to a much larger problem. Example: When I think about those less fortunate than me, I realize that my own problems are just a drop in the bucket.

  29. The Story: The archangel Gabriel visited Mary, a young woman who had taken a vow of virginity early in life. He told her that she, by the Holy Spirit, would soon become the mother of Jesus. This became known as the virgin birth of Christ. She was then married to Joseph. Soon after, the emperor, decided to take a census. Joseph and a very pregnant Mary journeyed to Bethlehem. No one would take them in. They ended up staying in a stable. That night Jesus was born and laid in a manger. Later he visited by 3 wise men and 3 shepherds. The little family stayed together while they fled to Egypt and later returned to Nazareth. History: Mary appears throughout the Bible many times, but the story in focus here begin in Luke 1. The Virgin Mary The Why: The Virgin Mary is often alluded to with the purpose of showing the innocence and virtue a character possesses. How that person is pure and uncorrupt.

  30. In 1997 Sinead O’Conner played The Virgin Mary, in the film, The Butcher Boy. She was a hallucination of the main character. This quote from Life of Pi also references Mary the Virgin: “She came floating on an island of bananas in a halo of light, as lovely as the Virgin Mary. The rising sun was behind her. Her flaming hair looked stunning.” Idiom: The writing is on the wall- based on a story from the Bible where Daniel reads mysterious handwriting on a wall, that predicts the fall of Babylon. It happens just days later. Now it is used when people see there is a likelihood for unfortunate events, or when they feel something ominous is approaching.

  31. Water into wine: One of the greatest miracles Jesus ever preformed was transforming water into wine at a wedding he was invited to. The guests had never tasted a better wine. This little miracle has been referenced in many movies because it is so well-recognized. The Prodigal Son This story comes from Luke 15: 11-32 This story tells us that we should always look with love upon those who have trespassed against us. As well as we should rejoice when they come back to us from where they were lost. Summary: A man had two sons and a large estate. The younger son decided he wanted to leave and his share of the estate. He left and spent away all of his share. A famine hit and he went to work feeding pigs but was not given anything for himself. He decided to return to his father. Upon his return his father held a feast and killed their fattened calf in honor of his son’s return. The older son became enraged because he had always been loyal and his father had never rewarded him so handsomely. His father said they had to celebrate because the youngest son was dead and had returned to life. He had been lost but now had been found. • Examples in Literature, Movies, ect. • In the Lion King, Simba makes a bad decision and takes Nala with him. When things go wrong and they return home, Mufasa is just relieved he’s ok and glad his son has been found again. • The League Of Extraordinary Gentlemen: Allan Quartermain is reminded of his lost son by Tom Sawyer (The American Special Agent). He is exactly like him and Allan kind of rejoices at the thought of having him back. He doesn’t openly celebrate but he does form a great bond with Tom as the movie goes on.

  32. Jonah’s story begins when God commands him to travel to the city of Nineveh to warn people about the wickedness of their ways. Instead of rising to the challenge, Jonah ran away from God’s command to the port of Joppa and joined a voyage to the city of Tarnish. As Jonah was voyaging across the sea, a terrible storm hit. The sailors throw all of their cargo into the sea and tried to make it back to land. Jonah knew that this was God’s doing and he told the sailors to throw him overboard. They at first refused and continued trying to row back to land, but they could not and so they threw Jonah overboard. They prayed to God that they had not killed him and God sent a large fish, or a whale, to swallow him. Jonah stayed inside the whale for 3 days and nights. During that time Jonah prayed and asked for God’s forgiveness. At the end of the three days, the whale vomited Jonah onto land. Jonah 1 New King James Version  Jonah And the Whale The Story of Jonah and the whale teaches of God’s forgiveness and obeying God’s commands. Fight the Best Fight • Allusions • Pinocchio • Moby Dick

  33. Jezebel Jezebel was the wife of Ahab, king of Israel. They were both worshipers of Baal, a false idol of weather. Unlike every other woman referenced in the bible, Jezebel was essentially a cruel and evil person, not only in her beliefs in the false god, but in her actions. She brutally murdered several prophets of God and sent the others into hiding. Later, the newly appointed king of Israel, Jehu, had Jezebel thrown out a window, where she was eaten by dogs. Why should I care?... Since Jezebel committed numerous atrocious crimes against God, and is one of the only evil women referenced in the bible, she is often used to stereotype a female character as evil, unnecessarily cruel, or otherwise acting against God. • Where Can I Find This Story?... • In the original Twilight Zone, there is an episode about an evil girl named Jess-Belle, a reference to Jezebel from the old Testament. • On That 70’s Show, Fez tells Eric’s sister (who is not very nice) “Zip-it Jezebel”. • In Isaac Asimov’s novel Caves of Steel, Jezebel is described as an ideal wife, and a woman who, in full compliance with the mores of the time, promotes her own religion conscientiously. • In Tom Robbins’s novel Skinny Legs and All, Jezebel is presented as a down to earth, sympathetic, and strong female character, wrongfully slandered in the Bible because of her religious beliefs. www.thethinkingatheist.com By: Katie Posey

  34. “Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the salt have lost his savour, wherewith shall it be salted? it is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of men.” -Matthew 5:13 Jesus told his disciples they were the salt of the earth during one of his numerous lessons to them. He was referring to the useful and valuable properties of salt, telling them they were the flavorful ones of the earth full of worth and reliability. Should someone call you the salt of the earth, they are complimenting you, telling you are of worth, value, and wisdom. Furthermore, Jesus told the disciples that once the flavor of the salt is gone, it is never coming back. Your worth is only there if you hold onto it, you must not lose it or it shall be gone for good. By: Katie Posey www.flickriver.com

  35. THE GOOD SAMARITAN Luke 10:29–37 THE STORY: A man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and on the way he met some robbers, who stripped him, beat him, and went away, leaving him half dead. By chance a priest was going down that road; and when he saw him, he passed by on the other side. Likewise a Levite, when he came to the place and saw him, passed by on the other side. But a Samaritan while travelling came near him; and when he saw him, he was moved with pity. He went to him and bandaged his wounds, having poured oil and wine on them. Then he put him on his own animal, brought him to an inn, and took care of him and paid for his stay there. Historical/Cultural Context: The story of the good Samaritan, where some one, out of the kindness of their heart helps a helpless human being, is used as an allusion in many works throughout different eras. Blue Bloods, 1st episode entitled Samaritans, TVNCIS Season 1, episode 14, entitled The Good Samaritans, TVJane Eyre (book) Samaritan (film) Significance (why do we call someone a “Good Samaritan”): As a compliment. Many people know the story of the compassionate man who helped the forsaken man. People reference the story of the Good Samaritan as an allusion to the situation at hand which mirrors the story from the Bible. Exodus 21:24 an eye for an eye. [Exactly what it sounds like. Also somewhat like let the punishment fit the crime.]

  36. The Last Supper Example #1: In Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises, a scene takes place that is very resembles the scene of the last supper. The main characters become closer and they engage in intimate conversation that shows that they have become as close as “brothers”. This is symbolic of their first communion together just like the first communion in the last supper. The Story: On the Passover before Jesus’ crucifixion, Jesus sent one of his disciples to a man’s house to tell him they were coming to have the Passover dinner there. At the dinner, Jesus told his disciples that one of them would betray him. The disciples were greatly disturbed by this statement, and they throughout the dinner, they would each ask Jesus, “Lord, is it I?” Jesus says that the man that dips his hand in the dish with him is the one that will betray him. Judas was the disciple to betray Jesus. After this, Jesus institutes the Lord’s supper. First, he takes a loaf of bread and breaks it saying that it represents his body in which Jesus came to Earth. He passes the bread around, and each disciple takes a piece Then, he takes a cup of wine and passes it around the group. He says that it represents the blood that he will shed on his crucifixion. This was the very communion.

  37. Example #2: In John Steinbeck’s Grapes of Wrath, a woman breast- feeds a starving man. While doing so she says, “Drink, this is my blood.” This directly alludes to what Jesus says in the story. The woman knows that without her, the man would have died just like Christ in the Bible. In the Bible, Jesus is sacrifices himself for the sins of humans because he knows they would be lost without Him. This makes the example very similar to the Last Supper. The original story is in: Matthew 26:17-30 “Lion lies down with the lamb” In general, this story is alluded to most often to exemplify a sacrifice or a savior. Other times, like in the Hemingway example, it is referred to as the first communion which is also significant. This is a very commonly used phrase from the Bible, but it is misquoted. It is found in Isaiah 11:6, and says, “The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, the leopard shall lie down with the young goat…”. In usage, this phrase refers to a time of peace. More specifically, it refers to the time when the Messiah returns to the Earth and brings peace, but it can be used in other contexts.

  38. Crucifixion Allusions: The holy cross used as the symbol of Christianity is referencing the crucifixion of Jesus. EX: Grapes of Wrath Summary- A terrible punishment for the guilty, the story of crucifixion is usually in reference to the death of Jesus Christ. In the Bible, a man named Jesus Christ, proclaims himself as King of the Jews, and leads 12 disciples to pray for people across the world, which was considered a high treasonous crime . For 30 silver pieces, a disciple of Jesus, Judas Iscariot, identifies Jesus to the temple guard with a kiss. Jesus is then guided to Judea governor, Pontius Pilate, to be judged. Pontius first sees him as innocent, but due to public pressure, allows the people to decide the fate of Jesus. Decided overwhelmingly guilty, Christ is sent to Golgotha’s Rock to be crucified on a cross, a most painful and slow death. Meaning: By sacrificing himself, the death of Jesus Christ is said to have opened the gateway to heaven and have absolved humanity from sin. Ultimately meaning crucifixion is a symbol of martyrdom.

  39. “Heap coals of fire”- references to a christian philosophy to approach an enemy’s hatred with kindness.

  40. Holy Grail: Usually used as a metaphor to compare things. It is usually the ultimate goal of a person to get this object or state but it is very hard to achieve and quite rare to find. An example would be: Some say the Ferrari car brand is the Holy Grail of cars and is the best that will ever exist. Conversion of Saul by :Scott Bauer Allusions to the Conversion of Saul: In the book The Invisible Man the author talks about a man who has changed from Saul to Paul. This meaning a positive change in his life overall. Another common usage is on the road to Damascus. If you say someone is on the road to Damascus they are going in the right direction in order to make their state of being better. The Story: Saul was a man who persecuted Christians. Saul was on his way to Damascus to arrest any Christians he found there. Saul was thinking of how he could hurt the Christians as he came near Damascus when a bright light suddenly shone down from heaven. Saul fell to the ground and a voice said, “Saul, Saul why do you prosecute me?” Saul answered , “Who are you, Lord?” The voice replied, “I am Jesus whom you are persecuting. It is hard to fight against me. Go now into Damascus and you will be told what you must do. When Saul rose he was blind. For three days Saul didn’t eat or drink. God told a man Ananias that he should go see Saul. Ananias laid his hands on Saul and Saul was able to see again. Saul began to follow the teachings of Jesus and his name was changed to Paul. Paul, the apostle, became a missionary and taught Christianity all over the world.

  41. Background: With the Roman government prosecuting them, Christians began to question when the events such as the return of Jesus Christ and the coming of the new age would occur. Even though Christians attempted to avoid losing their faith, many of them were soon tempted to abandon their faith to please the Roman government. Due to these circumstances, a Christian named John wrote Revelation for the seven churches of Asia Minor to strengthen their faith and also to warn them of the apocalyptic events that (were believed) needed to occur before the day of divine intervention, or the coming of God through Jesus Christ. Revelation • John exiled to Patmos due to Christian faith • Voice of Jesus Christ told him to write what he saw and send to the seven churches • Seven angels become guardians of each church • Christ warns Christians that Satan is returning • They must remain faithful because God’s judgement is close at hand • John describes seven seals (scrolls) where events will be described • Jesus, the Lamb of God, is only one worthy enough to open seals • Disasters in the form of earthquakes, turning rivers to blood, etc. revealed to earth when scrolls are opened • Wrath of God visiting those who persecute Christian people • John uses Book of Daniel to describe ruler who forced Jews into submission. • Beast represents Roman emperor, given the number 666 • Ties Satan to Roman emperor because both try to destruct Christianity • Seven angels appear-each empty bowl that symbolizes wrath of God onto earth • Different catastrophes that bring an end to the kingdoms on earth • Christ will approach the earth, the wicked will die, Satan will be bound, the City of God will descend to earth, and Jesus will be with all.

  42. The Lord of the Flies: “And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea” (Revelations 13:1) goes along with chapter 5 of Lord of the Flies, Beast From Water. “And I saw one of his heads as it were wounded to death; and his deadly wound was healed: and all the world wondered after the beast” (Revelations 13:3) is alluded to with the beast in chapter 6 of Lord of the Flies when the boys find a dead parachutist who the boys bring back to life (figuratively) with their fear. Revelation Cartoon: Revelation is referenced because it outlines the social, economical, religious system that dominates the world, and how the system can be overthrown with a strong leader and a lot of faith. By bread alone: Matthew 4:4 - Jesus answered, "It is written: 'Man does not live on bread alone, but on every word that comes from the mouth of God.'“ Satan’s temptations are the strongest to us, but people cannot live on the bread that he offers. They can live only on the word and faith of God and the strength that their religion gives to them.

  43. Purpose of Biblical Allusions Text: Explanation: • The truck driver comes and he’s eating spam. • “Men ate what they had not raised, had no connection with the bread” (36). • At first, it might look like a random detail. • Actually an allusion. • “In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground” Gen. 3:19a • In a single sentence, Steinbeck makes a huge comment on technology. • Naturally, people are supposed to work for what they consume. • The truck driver, as others who rely on technology, is disobeying God.