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Chapter 20 Mass Society and Democracy

Chapter 20 Mass Society and Democracy. Section 1 The Growth of Industrial Prosperity. Section 1 Targets. Describe how new sources of energy and consumer products transformed the standard of living for all social classes in many European countries.

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Chapter 20 Mass Society and Democracy

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  1. Chapter 20 Mass Society and Democracy

  2. Section 1 The Growth of Industrial Prosperity

  3. Section 1 Targets • Describe how new sources of energy and consumer products transformed the standard of living for all social classes in many European countries. • Summarize how working-class leaders used Marx’s ideas to form social parties

  4. I. The Second Industrial Revolution • Stunning material growth • 1st – Textiles, railroads, iron & coal • 2nd – Steel, chemicals, electricity and petroleum

  5. A. New Products 1870 to 1914 • Steel for iron (lighter, smaller, & faster) machines & engines, • Electricity (heat, light & motion)

  6. A. New Products • Thomas Edison created the light bulb in the United States • Joseph Swan (Britain) • opened homes & cities to electric lights

  7. Thomas Edison http://www.bu.edu/webcentral/learning/fireworks2/graphics/thomas_edison.jpg

  8. A. New Products • telephone, Alexander Graham Bell

  9. Alexander Graham Bell http://www.americaslibrary.gov/assets/jb/recon/jb_recon_telephone_1_e.jpg

  10. A. New Products • radio, Guglielmo Marconi

  11. http://infonib.nib.unicamp.br/~sabbatin/marconi.jpg Guglielmo Marconi

  12. New Products • internal-combustion engine • Henry Ford, automobile • Assembly line production • Provided a new source of power for transportation • Ocean liners, airplanes, automobiles

  13. Henry Ford & the Model T

  14. The Automobile Many new forms of transportation were created in the Industrial Revolution, but none affected more people on a daily basis than the automobile. It was the invention of the internal-combustion engine that made the automobile possible.

  15. New Products • Orville & Wilbur Wright made the first flight in a fixed-wing plane at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina

  16. B. New Patterns • Wages increased • prices fell • transportation cost reduced • Advanced industrial core vs. agricultural areas • These provide food & raw materials

  17. Industrialization and urbanization created the need for markets and raw materials. Germany, France, Switzerland, Luxemburg, Belgium, and the Netherlands 20% or more were living in large cities by 1870.

  18. C. Toward a World Economy • Steamship & railroad created a world economy • Capital invested abroad • Foreign countries provide markets • Europe now had capital, industries & military might

  19. II. Organizing the Working Classes • Desire to improve their working and living conditions

  20. A. Marx’s Theory • 1848, The Communist Manifesto • Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels • Appalled at the horrible conditions in factories • Oppressors vs. Oppressed have been fighting since the beginning of time

  21. Karl Marx http://ausbeutung.efghost.com/karl.marx.gif

  22. “Proletarians of the World, Unit!” Karl Marx

  23. A. Marx’s Theory • Bourgeoisie- owned the means of production or the oppressors • proletariat –depended on the Bourgeoisie or the oppressed • Dictatorship – government in which a person or group has absolute power

  24. A. Marx’s Theory • All of the world history was a “history of class struggles” - the oppressor versus the oppressed. This struggle would end in open revolution & the overthrow of the bourgeoisie by the proletariat. A classless society would emerge, & the state would wither away.

  25. B. Socialist Parties • German Social Democratic Party, under the direction of Marxist leaders • Worked to pass laws that would improve conditions for the working class • Party was divided between Pure Marxists who wanted a violent revolution

  26. B. Socialist Parties • German Social Democratic Party • Revisionists, rejected the revolutionary approach and argued that workers must continue to organize in mass political parties and even work with other parties to gain reforms

  27. C. Trade Unions • strike, a work stoppage called by members of a union to pressure an employer into meeting their demands • 1900, 2 million workers in Britain • By 1914, 4 million

  28. Section 2: The Emergence of Mass Society

  29. I. The New Urban • Lack of jobs & land drove people from rural areas to the cities • Jobs in factories & service trades • Improvements in sanitation, water supply and services made cities more livable

  30. II. Social Structure of Mass Society • New elite: Landowning aristocrats joined by wealthy industrialists, bankers and merchants • Middle Class • Upper middle class – lawyers, doctors, civil service, accountants, etc. • Lower middle class – shopkeepers & traders

  31. A. The New Elite • Landowning aristocrats joined by wealthy industrialists, bankers and merchants

  32. B. The Middle Class • Believed in hard work • Concerned with the “right way of doing things”

  33. C. The Working Class • 80% of the European population • Landholding peasants, farm laborers, sharecroppers • Unskilled laborers – day laborers & domestic

  34. C. The Working Class • Improved working conditions, more money, 10 hour workday and the invention of the weekend improved life for urban workers

  35. III. The Experiences of Women • 19th century, women struggled to change their status

  36. A. New Job Opportunities • More jobs opened up for women (secretaries, phone operators, salesclerks) • Low paying white-collar jobs

  37. B. Marriage & the Family • Birth control=smaller families • More focus on childhood • Girls should stop working when they married • Togetherness/ Family Christmas created

  38. C. The Movement for Women’s Rights • Feminism - movement for women’s rights • Began during the Enlightenment • Florence Nightengale (famous British nurse) & Clara Barton (US Civil War Nurse) established nursing profession • “Women in white”

  39. IV. Universal Education • State supported schools established • Boys and girls 6-12 • Need for skilled workforce • Democracy=need for educated voters • literacy, or the ability to read

  40. V. New Forms of Leisure • More money, more spare time • Amusement parks • Sports Teams & movies • entertained large crowds • distracted them from the realities of their work lives

  41. Steeplechase swimming pool at Coney Island, New York, c. 1919

  42. The New Team Sports Sports were by no means a new activity in the late nineteenth century. Soccer games had been played by peasants and workers, and these games had often been bloody and even deadly. However, in the late nineteenth century, sports became strictly organized. The English Football Association (founded in 1863) and the American Bowling Congress (founded in 1895), for example, provide strict rules and officials to enforce them.

  43. 87 cents about 2 ounces $1.78 The diet consisted of all meat and carbohydrates with no fresh vegetables.

  44. Section 3: The National State & Democracy

  45. Objectives • Discuss how new political parties and labor unions challenged the governments of western Europe. • Explain how international rivalries led to conflicts in the Balkans and World War I

  46. I. Western Europe & Political Democracy • Progress towards constitutions, parliaments and individual liberties • Political democracy • Universal male suffrage • Political parties & larger organizations • People now part of the political process

  47. A. Great Britain • Two-party parliamentary system • *Liberal Party & Conservative Party • Led by aristocratic landowners • *Reform acts of 1867 & 1884 increased the number of adult males who could vote • Later, by World War I (1917) all males over age 21 and women over age 30 could vote

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