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Total Utility and Marginal Utility

Total Utility and Marginal Utility

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Total Utility and Marginal Utility

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  1. Total Utility and Marginal Utility

  2. What is utility? • Utility of a consumer is a measure of the satisfaction the consumer derives from consumption of goods and services • Each individual’s utility depends on everything that a person consumes • Consumption bundle – is the collection of all the goods and services consumed by that individual

  3. Utility and Consumption • Consumption bundle – is the collection of all the goods and services consumed by that individual • Utility function – gives the total utility generated by his or her consumption bundle • Remember….people must make choices and they usually base them on at least one rough attempt to decide which choice will given them greater satisfaction

  4. Measuring Utility • Measured in hypothetical units called utils

  5. Diminishing Marginal Utility • What is marginal utility? • The change in total utility generated by consuming one additional unit of that good or service • The marginal utility curve shows how marginal utility depends on the quantity of a good or service consumed • The marginal utility curve is constructed by plotting points at the midpoint of the unit intervals

  6. Diminishing Marginal Utility • Slopes downward due to diminishing marginal utility—each additional clam gives Cassie less utility than the previous clam

  7. Diminishing Marginal Utility • Not all marginal utility curves eventually become negative • Generally accepted that marginal utility curves do slope downward – consumption of most goods and services is subject to diminishing marginal utility

  8. Diminishing Marginal Utility • The principle of diminishing marginal utility says that each successive unit of a good or service consumed adds less to total utility than the previous unit • The more of a good or service you consume, the closer you are to being satisfied – reaching a point at which an additional unit of the good adds nothing to your satisfaction

  9. Budget Constraints & Budget Lines • The principle of diminishing marginal utility is able to explain why most people eventually reach a limit • It costs some additional resources to consume more of a good, and consumers must take that cost into account when making choices • The fundamental measure of a cost is opportunity cost • The amount of money a consumer can spend is limited, a decision to consume more of a good is also a decision to come less of some other good

  10. Budget Constraints & Budget Lines • Sammy loves clams and potatoes but he has a weekly income of $20 and since, given his appetite, more of either good is better than less, he spends it all on clams and potatoes • If clams cost $4 per pound and potatoes cost $2 per pound • What are his possible choices???? • What are his limits????

  11. Budget Constraints & Budget Lines • Whatever he chooses, we know that the cost of his consumption bundle can not exceed the amount of money that he has to spend. Expenditure on clams + Expenditure on potatoes ≥ Total income

  12. Budget Constraints & Budget Lines • Consumers have limited income and this limits how much they can consume. • With the equation – a consumer might choose a consumption bundle that costs no more than his or her income • Budget Constraint – requires that the cost of a consumer’s consumption bundle be no more than the consumer’s income

  13. Budget Constraints & Budget Lines • Sammy’s consumption bundles are his consumption possibilities • The set of all consumption bundles that can be consumed given the consumer’s income and prevailing prices • Remember – whether or not a particular consumption bundle is included in a consumer’s consumption possibilities depends on the consumer’s income and the prices of goods and services

  14. Sammy’s Consumption Possibilities Quantity of clams Quantity of potatoes Consumption bundle (pounds) (pounds) A 0 10 B 1 8 C 2 6 D 3 4 E 4 2 F 5 0 Does Point C represent Sammy’s budget constraint? Expenditure on clams + Expenditure on potatoes ≥ Total income 6 pounds of potatoes x $2 per pound + 2 pounds of clams x $4 per pound $12 + $8 = $20 Quantity of potatoes (pounds) Unaffordable consumption bundles 10 A 8 B Affordable consumption bundles that cost all of Sammy's income 6 C 4 D Affordable consumption bundles 2 E Sammy’s Budget Line, BL F 0 1 2 3 4 5 Quantity of clams (pounds)

  15. Budget Constraints & Budget Lines • Budget line show the consumption bundles available to a consumer who spends all of his or her income • Sammy’s is downward sloping because he is consuming all of his income

  16. Consumption Choice • Sammy has a budget constraint which means he will consume a consumption bundle on the budget line – a choice to consume a given quantity of claims also determines his potato consumption • How do we find the consumption bundle that maximizes Sammy’s total utility? Finding his optimal consumption bundle!

  17. Consumption Choice • Sammy’s optimal consumption bundle is the consumption bundle that maximizes the consumer’s total utility given his or her budget constraint

  18. The utility of Sammy’s choices is shown below. The more Sammy consumer of either good, the higher his utility is. • Due to his limited budget, he has to make a trade-off

  19. Consumption Choice • The more pounds of clams he consumes, the fewer potatoes, etc. • He must choose a point on his budget line

  20. Sammy’s Budget and Total Utility Sammy’s total utility is the sum of the utility he gets from clams and the utility he gets from potatoes.

  21. Optimal Consumption Bundle (a) Sammy’s Budget Line Quantity of potatoes (pounds) The optimal consumption bundle… A 10 B 8 C 6 D 4 E 2 F BL 2 0 1 3 4 5 Quantity of clams (pounds) (b) Sammy’s total utility is maximized at bundle C, where he consumes 2 pounds of clams and 6 pounds of potatoes. This is Sammy’s optimal consumption bundle. Sammy’s Utility Function Total utility (utils) 80 C B D 70 A E 60 Utility function 50 … maximizes total utility given the budget constraint 40 F 30 20 10 2 0 1 3 4 5 Quantity of clams (pounds) 10 8 2 0 6 4 Quantity of potatoes (pounds)

  22. Total Utility and Marginal Utility Notes

  23. What is utility? • Utility of a consumer is a measure of the satisfaction the consumer derives from consumption of goods and services • Each individual’s utility depends on everything that a person consumes • Consumption bundle – is the collection of all the goods and services consumed by that individual

  24. Utility and Consumption • Utility function – • Remember….people must make choices and they usually base them on at least one rough attempt to decide which choice will given them greater satisfaction

  25. Measuring Utility

  26. Diminishing Marginal Utility • What is marginal utility? • The marginal utility curve shows how marginal utility depends on the quantity of a good or service consumed

  27. Diminishing Marginal Utility

  28. Diminishing Marginal Utility • Not all marginal utility curves eventually become negative • Generally accepted that marginal utility curves do slope downward – consumption of most goods and services is subject to diminishing marginal utility

  29. Diminishing Marginal Utility • The principle of diminishing marginal utility says • The more of a good or service you consume, the closer you are to being satisfied –

  30. Budget Constraints & Budget Lines • The principle of diminishing marginal utility is able to explain why most people eventually reach a limit • It costs some additional resources to consume more of a good, and consumers must take that cost into account when making choices • The fundamental measure of a cost is ____________________ • The amount of money a consumer can spend is limited, a decision to consume more of a good is also a decision to come less of some other good

  31. Budget Constraints & Budget Lines • Sammy loves clams and potatoes but he has a weekly income of $20 and since, given his appetite, more of either good is better than less, he spends it all on clams and potatoes • If clams cost $4 per pound and potatoes cost $2 per pound • What are his possible choices???? • What are his limits????

  32. Budget Constraints & Budget Lines • Whatever he chooses, we know that the cost of his consumption bundle can not exceed the amount of money that he has to spend.

  33. Budget Constraints & Budget Lines • Consumers have limited income and this limits how much they can consume. • With the equation – a consumer might choose a consumption bundle that costs no more than his or her income • Budget Constraint –

  34. Budget Constraints & Budget Lines • Sammy’s consumption bundles are his consumption possibilities • The set of all consumption bundles that can be consumed given the consumer’s income and prevailing prices • Remember –

  35. Sammy’s Consumption Possibilities Quantity of clams Quantity of potatoes Consumption bundle (pounds) (pounds) A 0 10 B 1 8 C 2 6 D 3 4 E 4 2 F 5 0 Quantity of potatoes (pounds) Unaffordable consumption bundles 10 A 8 B Affordable consumption bundles that cost all of Sammy's income 6 C 4 D Affordable consumption bundles 2 E Sammy’s Budget Line, BL F 0 1 2 3 4 5 Quantity of clams (pounds)

  36. Budget Constraints & Budget Lines • Budget line show the consumption bundles available to a consumer who spends all of his or her income • Sammy’s is downward sloping because

  37. Consumption Choice • Sammy has a budget constraint which means he will consume a consumption bundle on the budget line – a choice to consume a given quantity of claims also determines his potato consumption • How do we find the consumption bundle that maximizes Sammy’s total utility?

  38. Consumption Choice

  39. The utility of Sammy’s choices is shown below. The more Sammy consumer of either good, the higher his utility is. • Due to his limited budget,

  40. Consumption Choice • The more pounds of clams he consumes, the fewer potatoes, etc. • He must choose a point on his budget line

  41. Sammy’s Budget and Total Utility

  42. Optimal Consumption Bundle (a) Sammy’s Budget Line Quantity of potatoes (pounds) A 10 B 8 C 6 D 4 E 2 F BL 2 0 1 3 4 5 Quantity of clams (pounds) (b) Sammy’s Utility Function Total utility (utils) 80 C B D 70 A E 60 Utility function 50 40 F 30 20 10 2 0 1 3 4 5 Quantity of clams (pounds) 10 8 2 0 6 4 Quantity of potatoes (pounds)