Causes of world War I • Nationalism – extreme patriotism • Italian nationalists freed Italy from foreign control and unified Italy. • Led by Giuseppe Garibaldi. • Germany also was divided. • Otto von Bismark created a unified Germany. • Both countries sought to find their place among world powers.
Militarism • Nationalism and the Industrial Revolution led to Militarism. • Countries built strong militaries to expand their power to build overseas empires. • Carved up much of Africa and Asia. • Powerful countries came in conflict with each other. • Nations glorified war and military power.
Alliances • Tension grew, countries formed alliances to aid them in case of war. • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy formed the Triple Alliance. • France, Britain, Russia formed the Triple Entente. • This created more tension.
The Beginning • June 1914 – Archduke Ferdinand of Austria was visiting Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia. • He and his wife were assassinated by a Bosnian nationalists. • Austria accused Serbia of planning this and threatened war. • Germany stood by Austria. • Russia stood by Serbia.
The Beginning • August 1, 1914 – Germany declares war on Russia. • France and Britain side with Russia. • Austria and Italy side with Germany. • World War I has begun.
WWI • War was fought on many fronts. • Trench warfare – soldiers dug long trenches protected by mines and barbed wire. • One side would shell the other then send its soldiers “over the top”. • Hundreds of thousands of soldiers were lost for very little territory.
New Weapons • Both side used new weapons. • Machine guns, poison gas. • Caused mass casualties. • Use of aircraft, first for observation then later for bombing and “dogfights”. • German “U-boats” attacked merchant ships. • April 1917 – U.S. is drawn into the war.
The End • Presence of American soldiers boosted the morale of the Allies. • In early 1918 American and Allied forces pushed back a final German offensive. • November 11, 1918 – Allies and Germany signed and armistice agreement ending the war.
The Peace • 1919 – Met in Paris to develop a peace settlement. • Treaty of Versailles imposed harsh terms on Germany because it blamed them for starting the war. • Included heavy reparations. • War caused enormous property damage. • Millions killed or wounded.
Rise of Dictators • During 1920’s and 1930’s Europe struggled to recover from the WWI. • People faced economic hardships and political unrest. • Turned to powerful leaders who promised a better future.
Facist Italy • Italy plagued by bad economy and blmaed government for the problems. • Benito Mussolini founded the Facist Party. • Glorified the state and supported nationalist expansion. • Condemned democracy • Mussolini ruled as a dictator. • Silenced critics, controlled army, created secret police, invaded Ethiopia.
Nazi Germany • Experienced extreme turmoil after the war. • Inflation and high reparations weakened the economy. • Adolf Hitler gained control of the National Socialist Party. • Blamed Jews for Germany’s problems. • 1933- Hitler became Chancellor of Germany. • Crushed opposition and became the “Furhrer”.
Nazi Germany • Secret Police arrested anyone who opposed the Nazi’s. • Used propaganda to spread their message. • Waged violent campaign against the Jews. • Sent millions of Jews to concentration camps. • 6 million Jews and 5 million others lost their lives in concentration camps.
WWII • September 1, 1939 – Germany invades Poland; official beginning of WWII. • Britain and France declare war on Germany (Allies). • Italy and Japan align with Germany(Axis). • Allies will eventually include the Soviet Union, the U.S., and 45 other countries.
The Axis advances across Europe in the early years. • Military strategy was the “blitzkrieg”, “lightning war”. • Planes, tanks, artillery, and mechanized infantry launched a combined attack on a country. • Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France all fall by 1941.
Britain is the next target. • German bombers run nightly bombing raids to weaken England before invading it. • The Battle of Britain was eventually won by courageous British pilots with aid from the U.S. • In June 1941 Hitler invades Russia. Successful until stopped by harsh winter and fierce fighting by Russian soldiers.
December 7, 1941 - Japan launches surprise attack of U.S. Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor. • U.S. enters the war. • Japan captures the Philippines and other islands in the South Pacific. • U.S. begins sending troops to South Pacific to push back the Japanese.
1942- the tide begins to turn. • Axis advance in North Africa is stopped and Germans badly defeated at Battle of El Alamein. • Germans defeated at Battle of Stalingrad, 1943. • U.S. Marines push Japanese out of Guadalcanal in February of 1943.
“Island hopping” continues as U.S. gains control of the South Pacific by defeating the Japanese on Tarawa, Iwo Jima, the Solomon Islands, and Okinawa. • June 6, 1944 – D-Day – allies land huge invasion force on the beaches of Normandy on the coast of France. Begin to push Germans back into Germany. • August 25, 1944 – Paris is liberated.
December, 1944 – Battle of the Bulge – major German offensive to try and break the invasion. Eventually fails due to the efforts of U.S. General George S. Patton and his 3rd Armored Division. • Russian troops move into Germany from the east and American and British forces cross into Germany on the west.
April 30, 1945 – Hitler commits suicide in his bunker in Berlin. • May 7, 1945 – Germany officially surrenders and the war in Europe ends. • U.S. prepares for a massive invasion of the Japanese Islands. Estimates of expected casualties are extremely high. • August 6, 1945 – U.S. drops atomic bomb on Japanese city of Hiroshima.
Three days later they drop a second atomic bomb on the city of Nagasaki. • 6 days later, on August 15, 1945, Japan surrenders and WWII comes to an end.
Effects of WWII • 30 million deaths in Europe and possibly 60 million worldwide. • Many cities in Europe and Asia destroyed or heavily devastated. • Millions of homeless people. • 6 million Jews murdered along with another 5 million Gypsies, homosexuals, political prisoners, and mentally and physically handicapped people during the Holocaust.
Two new superpowers emerge – the U.S. and the Soviet Union. • European colonies in Africa and Asia seek independence. (Israel is formed and India gets independence) • United Nations is formed to prevent world wars in the future.