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Nuclear Chemistry in Science Education - Forty-Five-Years Experience

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Nuclear Chemistry in Science Education - Forty-Five-Years Experience

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  1. Nuclear Chemistry in Science Education - Forty-Five-Years Experience Bratislava Fedor MACÁŠEK 2nd Int.Nuclear Chemistry Congress, Cancún 2008

  2. My background Moscow State University - physical chemistry and radiochemistry M.S. 1956-1961 Comenius University - nuclear chemistry, separation chemistry 1961-2004 BIONT,a.s. radiopharmaceuticals, quality manager 2005- Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  3. Teacher’s questions • Is nuclear chemistry an ugly child of 20th century chemistry? • Does nuclear chemistry contribute to the general science knowledge? • Are nuclear chemistry techniques valuable for present science? • Does nuclear industry need radiochemists? • Is nuclear chemistry knowledge any use for public? Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  4. Evils Tokai Mura Hiroshima Chernobyl Goiânia Litvinenko Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  5. Evils Industrial accidents were mostly caused by human factor:the lack ofdeeper (if any) knowledge of nuclear phenomena !!!

  6. Even the simple driving a car needs training and a license ! (and still more than 3000 people die on the world's roads every day !!!)

  7. What was the contribution of chemists to (nuclear) science? Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  8. Hall of Fame Frederic Soddy M.Curie-Sklodowska Frederic & Irene Joliot-Curie Glenn Seaborg Liza Meitner & Otto Hahn` Harold Urey Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  9. Hall of Fame Willard Libby George Hevesy Vitalyi Khlopin Joseph Starik Ivo Zvára Fridrich Paneth Fritz Strassmann Albert Ghiorso Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  10. What is the position of nuclear chemistry within chemistry ? Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  11. Behind the boarder of classical chemistry • accounts for the chemical consequences of proton-neutron composition of atom nucleus • considers chemical element a priori not as the simplest and stable chemical substance (entity) but as a mixture of isotopes, and a substance which internal energy consists from both electronic and nuclear component • describes the processes of alteration of chemical elements, and consequently their compounds. Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  12. Curricula

  13. Euro-baccalaureate Nuclear Chemistry I (Understanding radioactivity and ionizing radiation) 1. Properties of atomic nuclei. 2. Radioactive decay. 3. Natural radioactivity (40K, U, Th, Ra, Rn, 14C). 4. Physical, chemical and biological properties of ionizing radiation. 5. Measurement of radiation. Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  14. Euro-baccalaureate Nuclear Chemistry II (Isotope composition of elements and its change) 1. Excitation functions and rate of simple nuclear reactions. 2. Nuclear activation and NAA. Preparation of radionuclides in reactor and on cyclotron. 3. Nucleogenesis, pp-, α,-, s- and r-processes. 4. Separation of isotopes. Isotope analysis. 5. Chain fission reaction. Nuclear reactors. Fuel cycle. Transuranium elements. Nuclear waste processing. 6. Isotope exchange. Isotope indicators and labelled compounds. ` Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  15. Sources

  16. Textbooks - Classics • Sklodowska-Curie 1910 • Soddy 1911 • Hahn 1936 • Hevesy, Paneth 1938 • Wahl, Bonner 1951 • Haissinski 1957 • Kamen 1957 • Friedlander, Kennedy, Miller 1964 • Choppin, Rydberg 1980 • Lieser 1995 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  17. Textbooks - Classics In my student time: Friedlander, Kennedy 1955 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  18. Textbooks - Classics • Choppin, Liljenzin, Rydberg 1980, 1995, 2001 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  19. Textbooks – a newest one Loveland, Morrissey, Seaborg 2006 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  20. Textbooks by Professor Walter D. Loveland Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  21. Textbooks - Russia • Старик И.Е. Основы радиохимии. Л., Наука, 1969. • Нефедов В.Д., Текстер Е.Н., Торопова М.А. Радиохимия. М., ВШ, 1987 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  22. Textbooks - Czechoslovakia • Běhounek F., Heyrovský J., 1931 • Majer V., 1942, 1961 • Tölgyessy J., Varga Š., 1976 • Navratil O., Hála J., Kopunec R., Macášek F., Mikulaj V., Lešetický L., 1992 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  23. Slovakia - for teachers Nuclear Chemistry for Chemistry Teachers (since 1962!) Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  24. Slovakia - for teachers Nuclear Chemistry for Chemistry Teachers (since 1962!) 24 hrs on the 3rd year of study Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  25. Practice

  26. General science progress Break-through into life sciences necessary: (remember Leo Szilárd: when opposed to the use of all nuclear weapons he devoted himself to studying molecular biology !) Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  27. Radiochemical practice Break-through into the life sciences practice is necessary: • Natural radioactivity assay (potassium, radon) ? • Biochemical cycles ? • Non-specific DNA labeling ? Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  28. Radiochemical practice In sixtieths: GM counter for secondary schools For $10 without power supply! A TESLA digital counter BM353a for labs (about $1000) Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  29. Radiochemical practice Needs in a simple equipment for training (purchase in dosens?!): • GM-counters GCK-01 Kit: Ne + Halogen filled, with a 2mg/cm2 mica end window Detects alpha > 3.0 MeV, beta > 50 KeV, gamma > 7 KeV. about $400 www.imagesco.com/geiger/digital-geiger-counter.html Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  30. Radiochemical practice Needs in a simple equipment for training (purchase in dosens?!): • Liquid scintillation counters Triathler for 3H, 14C, 32P, 33P, 35S optional gamma counting NaI well, preset 125I, 51Cr, 58Co still $11-13 thousands ! Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  31. State-of-the-art

  32. Teaching chemistry in nuclear era 1) materials of nuclear purity (uranium, thorium, heavy water, zirconium, graphite etc.) 2) recovery of fission materials (239Pu from uranium and 233U from thorium) 3) materials for fusion reactors (deuterium from water, tritium from lithium) 4) utilization or transmutation of long-lived fission and activation products and transuranium elements 5) reliable fixation of radioactive wastes Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  33. Teaching chemistry in nuclear era All these topics of nuclear energy cycle should be reflected in curricula of all chemistry majors Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  34. Teaching challenges More attention to progressive applications: 1) radioactive tracers for computer tomography -SPECT and PET (radiopharmaceuticals) 2) radioactive tracers for biochemical and physiological processes, especially for pharmacodynamics and toxicology Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  35. Teaching chemistry in nuclear era 1971 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  36. Teaching chemistry in nuclear era 1990 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  37. Teaching chemistry in nuclear era 1992 „Status of Nuclear Science Education and Teaching“ Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  38. Teaching chemistry in nuclear era 2003 Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  39. Teaching chemistry in nuclear era Many large universities lost their leadership in nuclear science education, and in large extent their position was replaced by effort of research institutions, nuclear societies, and web learning. Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  40. Teaching chemistry in nuclear era since 2000 3 of 22 without response (?) Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  41. Teaching chemistry in nuclear era Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  42. Teaching chemistry in nuclear era Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  43. Teaching chemistry in nuclear era Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  44. Teaching chemistry in nuclear era (Michigan State University) 2008: none 2008: none Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  45. Teaching chemistry in nuclear era a very passive approach ! Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  46. Teaching chemistry in nuclear era anactive approach ! Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  47. Non-science major Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  48. Science Major CERN Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  49. Science Major Orsay Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008

  50. Hungary - G.Hevesy‘s country Budapest University of Technology and Economics Very progressive and equilibrated curricula of nuclear sciences ! http://www.enen-assoc.org/data/document/ne_hungary.pdf Macášek 2nd INCC Cancún 2008