Fabric construction Types of Fabrics
Fabric Construction • The Three Basic Types of Fabric: • WOVEN • KNIT • NON-WOVEN
Woven Fabrics • Made on a loom • Harnesses • Hold the Warp or lengthwise yarns during weaving • Go up and down and determine the weaving pattern • Shuttle • Holds the weft or crosswise yarn during weaving. • Shuttles are thrown back and forth in between rows of lengthwise yarns
Woven Fabrics • Made on a loom • Lengthwise yarns are vertical (WARP) • Lengthwise yarns are stronger • Go up and down on your body • Crosswise yarns are horizontal (WEFT) • Go across your body
Woven Fabrics Three Basic Types of Woven Fabrics Are: • Plain • Twill • Satin
Plain Weave • It is called a “PLAIN WEAVE” because it is the most simple type of weave. • The first yarn will go over one and then under one. • The second yarn will do exactly the opposite. • The third one, will repeat the first and the forth one will repeat the second.
Twill Weave • The “TWILL WEAVE” is designed for STRENGTH & DURABILITY. • The first yarn will go over Two and then under two of the lengthwise yarns. • The second yarn will rotate one over and then repeat the same pattern. • The third one rotate one over again, and then repeat the same pattern • When it is finished, you will see the illusion of a diagonal appearance.
Satin Weave The “SATIN WEAVE” is designed to create a shine on the surface of the fabric. To get a shine there must be two things happening. 1. The type of fiber must be made of a fiber that can shine. 2. The way it is woven will enhance the shine capability This style of weave is called a “Random Weave” because there is no order to the weave of the crosswise yarns.
Knits • Knits are made of interlocking loops • Characteristics of knit fabrics • Stretches • Resilient (which means returns to original shape • Wrinkle Resistant
Knits The “Knit Side” shows the face of the fabric “Purl Side”shows the back of it.
Knits: -Single Knit /Jersey- Has a front (KNIT SIDE) and back (PURL SIDE). The edge will curl when you stretch it. It is the only one that the front and back look different.
Knits: -Double- Two layers of jersey made back to back. Looks the same on both sides. The edge does not curl.
Knits –Ribbed- • Looks the same on both sides. • You will see ridges in between the knit rows. • It has an ultra-stretch
Non Woven • Fabric is made by gluing fibers together. • Characteristics: • It does not have “GRAIN” • It has No resilience. • If you stretch it does not return to its original shape • Requires special sewing techniques • Typically Used for Crafts & Décor items
NonWoven EXAMPLES Felt – Felt is a fabric that is used mostly for crafts. - It has very little stability or resilience. - It usually comes in brilliant colors. Felt & Felt Crafts
NonWoven Interfacing -Interfacing is used to stabilize fabrics and change the body. In some places on a garment may need more stiffness, strength or heavier drape. On this Jacket Interfacing is used in the collar, the lapel and the cuffs to help them be more functional.
NonWoven Dryer Sheet - A dryer sheet is made from the same material as the interfacing. The difference is that the dryer sheet has fabric softener applied to it. The fabric Softener will melt in the dryer heat and go into the laundry.
NonWoven Batting -Batting is used on the inside of a quilt or wall hanging. This is the part of the blankets that makes the blanket heavier and warmer than just two pieces of fabric together.
NonWoven Diapers -Diapers are a great use of non wovens. And they help keep children dry. The non woven fibers are used on disposable diapers to hold the diaper together from the outside
Fabric Characteristics Selvage Edge: The uncut edges that do not fray Follows the lengthwise direction of the fabric Cut/Raw Edge: This is the edge that is cut and will fray Lengthwise Grain: Also called the “Warp Yarns/Threads” These are the longest yarns in the fabric Crosswise Grain: Also called the “Weft Yarns/Threads” These yarns go from Selvage to Selvage
Fabric Characteristics Selvage Edge
Fabric Characteristics Straight of Grain: Refers to the lengthwise direction of the fabric… True-Bias: Refers to the diagonal Direction on the fabric…
How are “woven” fabrics made? Woven Fabrics are made on a “Loom”
How are “knit” fabrics made? A yarn that is looped together to create a solid piece of fabric with a stretch
How are “non-woven” fabrics made? Random fibers that are glued together. There is not a straight of grain on “non-woven” fabrics. “Non-woven” fabrics are not durable because of the way they are made.
What is the “selvage edge” ? “Selvage Edge” is the un-cut edge that doesn’t fray… … and follows the “lengthwise grain” of the fabric.
What does it mean to work with the “true-bias” ? Cutting the fabric at a 45* degree, diagonal angle
What are some unique characteristics when working with fabric on the “bias” ? Fabric that does not normally stretch, will stretch on the “bias”
What are some unique characteristics when working with fabric on the “bias” ? Fabric cut on the “bias” can change the direction of a print Fabric cut on the “bias” changes the way the fabric drapes the body
Why is important to cut out your fabric “on grain” ? Fabric cut “off grain” will make the seams hang crooked
How is “lengthwise grain” related to “selvage edge” ? The “lengthwise grain” follows the same direction as the “selvage edge”
Fibers & FABRICS QUIZ Go to the following website. Take the fibers & fabrics quiz. Click on the link below. When it directs you to the website, hit the refresh button. Or you can open Internet Explorer and type this web address into your browser. You need to make sure to enter your first and last name and click the button that says “login and start” www.ucutips.org/~hhutchings Your results will be sent to Mrs. Hutchings email address. When you are finished with the quiz, ask Mrs. Hutchings for your fabric swatches so you can attach them to your packet. Last, You need to get the Quiz Fabrics From Mrs. Hutchings!