Early Childhood AssessmentChapter 14 By: Robin, Tanalee, and Kalie
Early Childhood Intervention • Birth to 5 years • Done with children who are suspected of having a disability • Assessments done to derive information to facilitate decision making with regards to the individual. • Done to determine strengths and weaknesses so that a specific program can be planned and implemented.
Issues with Assessment • Many special educators are not trained in working with children aged birth to 5 years. • The special educators are not well versed in giving assessments designed for children of this age.
A Good Assessment Includes Functioning • Physical • Social • Intellectual Settings • Home • School • Community *all of this is used to plan an intervention program that will affect as much of the child’s life as possible.
Cont. • Must be broad enough to include many of the child’s abilities but specific enough to provide useful information • Should cover • Language • Motor development • Cognition
6 Standards of assessment • Authenticity- does the assessment focus on actual child behavior in real settings? • Convergence- are more than one source of information used? • Collaboration- are multiple people participating in assessment, especially the parents?
6 standards cont. • Equity- Does the assessment incorporate potential environmental factors? • Sensitivity- does the assessment include sufficient items for planning lessons and detecting changes? • Congruence- was the assessment developed and tested with students similar to those being tested?
IDEA 2004 (sec. 636 (a)(1)(2)) • The state shall provide at a minimum for each infant or toddler with a disability, and the infant’s or toddler’s family, to receive: (1) a multidisciplinary assessment of the unique strengths and needs of the infant or toddler and the identification of services appropriate to meet such needs; (2) a family-directed assessment of the resources, priorities, and concerns of the family and the identification of the supports and services necessary to enhance the family’s capacity to meet the developmental needs of the infant or toddler.
Environmental and Cultural Influences • There is much more variability in test score in young children because of environmental and cultural influences. These must be considered during assessment. • Mother and/or father’s verbalization • Toys and/or activities available to the child • Restrictive discipline • Freedom from danger • Cultural politeness and mannerisms
5 stages of the assessment process • Casefinding/child find • Screening • Assessment for diagnosis and determination of eligibility • Program planning • Program evaluation
IndividualizedFamilyServicePlan • The student’s present level • How the family will help the child • Measurable goals • Early intervention services • Where early intervention will happen • Dates • Service coordinator identification • Transitions
There are many different assessments that can be done with students this age. There is no one best assessment. You must choose an assessment that will fit yours and the child’s needs.
Bayley Scales of Infant Development 2nd Edition (BSID-II) Author: Nancy Bayley Description of Test: Mental Scales, Motor Scales, and Behavior Rating Scales Age/ Grade Levels: ages 1 through 42 months Subtest Information: Mental Development Index Psychomotor Development Index Behavior Development Index
Bayley Scales of Infant Development 2nd Edition (BSID-II) Strengths: • The scale’s norms are representative in terms of race, ethnicity, geographic region, parent education, and sex. • The BSID-II is a well standardized and very comprehensive test of infant development. • The BSID-II is a very popular test used by early intervention clinicians. • The test is good screening instrument for children with disabilities.
Metropolitan Readiness Test-6th Edition (MRT-6) Author: Joanne Ruth Nurss Description of Test: assesses literacy development in children Age/ Grade Levels: Pre-K and kindergarten Subtest Information: Visual discrimination, beginning consonants, sound-letter correspondence, story comprehension, and quantitative concepts and reasoning.
Metropolitan Readiness Test-6th Edition (MRT-6) Strengths -Comprehensive and diagnostic tool - It includes a conference report that explains the purpose and the results of the MRT-6 - Colorful format that children enjoy - provides excellent standardization
Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-Revised (BTBS-R) Author: Ann E. Boehm Description of Test: consist of 50 concepts items placed in two test booklets where the administrator reads the question and the students mark it in their booklet. Age/ Grade Levels: Kindergarten, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Subtest Information: none
Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-Revised (BTBS-R) Strengths -Most young children find the test interesting -The test has two equivalent forms that allow for the determination of the progress with pre- and post testing -Manual contains a score interpretation and the results are practical
The Preschool Evaluation Scales(PES) Author: Stephen B. McCartney Description of Test: A rating scale completed by the child’s parents or child-care provider consisting of a technical manual, rating forms, and computerized scoring system Age/ Grade Levels: Birth to 72 months Subtest Information: Large and small muscle skill, cognitive thinking, expressive language, social/ emotional behavior, and self-help skills
The Preschool Evaluation Scales(PES) Strengths -The test is a good screening device for developmental delays in preschool-age children - The test has strong validity - New norms are being developed for a home version
Battelle Development Inventory -2nd Edition (BDI-2) Author: Jean Newborg Description of Test: Based on the concepts of milestones Age/ Grade Levels: Birth- age 7 Subtest Information: Personal-Social, Adaptive, Motor, Communication, and Cognitive Domain
Battelle Development Inventory 2nd Edition (BDI-2) Strengths -Identification of children with disabilities - Child-Friendly manipulative at all ages -Web-base scoring option for all reports -Matches all areas required by IDEA
McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities (MSCA) Author: Dorothea McCarthy Description of Test: 18 separate tests groups into six scales: verbal, perceptual performance, quantitative, composite, Memory, and motor Age/ Grade Levels: 2-4 and 8-7 Subtest Information: see page 262 and 263
McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities (MSCA) Strengths - Contains elaborate information aboutthe standardization process, norm tables, and guidelines for administration and interpretation - The test is like a game -Reliability and validity are good determinants of achievement for children in school