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The Inferno

The Inferno

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The Inferno

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  1. The Inferno Dante Alighieri

  2. Dante: Poet • Exiled from Florence • White Guelph • 1265 – 1321 • Places enemies in hell • Politicians • Poets (Ovid , Lucan) • Church figures • Commentary on corruption • Popes

  3. Dante: Character • Travels through hell • Nature of sin • Symbolic of human race • Sympathy towards shades suffering • Emotional, fainting •  Contrasts the feelings of the author

  4. Virgil • Condemned to Limbo(1stcircle) • Master, Guide, Teacher • Guides and protects Dante through hell • Teaches morals and God’s justification • Represents human rationality and reason • Deliberate, determined, wise 

  5. Canto I • Dark wood, facing sunlit hill • Leopard, Lion, She-wolf • Back to the wood, Virgil • Can’t pass the beasts, propose as a guide through Hell

  6. Canto II • Feel not worthy • Virgil comfort him => how he has been send to him

  7. Canto III • Vestibule, hear sighs from the damned souls • Souls rejected by Heaven and Hell => no hope of truly dying • Meet Charon • Strong wind disturbs Dante’s senses => fall on the ground

  8. Canto IV • First circle : Limbo • Meet people around the only light • Reach a castle => “bearing told of great authority” and “master sage”

  9. Canto V • Second circle : Lustful • Minos • First time see souls being punished • Constantly whirling without hope of rest • Francesca and Paolo => pity => faint

  10. Canto VI • Third circle : Gluttons • Punishment = discomfort • Cerberus • Ciacco • Plutus

  11. Canto VII • Confronting Plutus – fourth circle :Prodigal and Miserly • 2 semicircles – clashing • Fortune • Fifth circle (river Styx) : wrathful • Fight forever • Tower

  12. Canto VIII • Before reaching the tower => Phlegyas • Attacked by FilippoArgenti • City of Dis => fiendish angels threating • Virgil comfort, argue • Slam doors

  13. Canto IX • Gate of Dis • Lack of Divine aid • Three furies • Call for Medusa • Heavenly messenger approaches • Enter into sixth circle- vast setting • Torment by Heretics

  14. Canto X • Tombs of heretics • Epicureans • Farinata interrupts

  15. Canto XI • Edge of seventh circle • Explanation of next three circles and subdivisions

  16. Canto XII • First ring of seventh circle • River of blood • Navigate around the river • Guard (Nessus) names 3 shades within the river

  17. Canto XIII • Second ring • Enters forest (Shade trees) • Formation of Shade trees

  18. Canto XIV • Edge of third ring • Divisions (zones) • Explanation of blasphemers (zone 1- within) • Happen across another “Red River”

  19. Canto XV • Second zone • Explanation of sodomites • Happen across Latini (Shade)

  20. Canto XVI • Still in second zone • Sinners from Florence • Virgil asks for Dante’s belt

  21. Canto XVII • Geryon (Fraud) • 3rd Zone • Usurers • Preventing art • Greed/Money • Furthering Mankind • Rain of Fire • Purses/Emblems around Neck • Down to 8th Circle

  22. Canto XVIII • Malebolge (Evil Pouches) • Wall, 10 ridges, pit 1st Pouch • Panderers/Seducers • Demons with whips 2nd Pouch • Flatterers • “Foul sight”

  23. Canto XIX • 3rd Pouch • Simoniacs(pardoners) • Pope Nicholas III • Dante’s Criticism

  24. Canto XX • 4th Pouch • Astrologers, Magicians, Diviners • Continuous line • Face backwards

  25. Canto XXI • 5th Pouch • Grafters/Conmen • Positions of power • Greed • Tar Pits • Malebranche (evil claws) • Malacoda (leader) • Time frame: Good Friday

  26. Canto XXII • Still 5th pouch • Speak with Barterer • Virgil and Dante run from Malebranche

  27. Canto XXIII • Slide down to 6th pouch • Escape Malebranche • Hypocrites • Lead lined clothing • Caiphus (preist to Pontius Pilate) • Crucified • Dante gets directions

  28. Canto XXIV • Rocky descent to 7th pouch • Thieves • Serpents chasing shades • “Stealing” forms • Catch, bite, burn, recreated • Dante’s Political Party

  29. Canto XXV • Three shades • Six footed serpent • Merge forms

  30. Canto XXVI • Eighth Circle, Eighth Pouch • Flames-contain souls of sinners that committed a fraud • Ulysses and Diomedes – Trojan Horse

  31. Canto XXVII • Guido de Montefeltro – advisor to the Pope • Release from guilt cannot come before repentance, which cannot come before the sin

  32. Canto XXVIII • Eight Circle, Ninth Pouch • Sowers of Discord • Dance in a circle as a demon hacks them to pieces

  33. Canto XXIX • Eighth Circle, Tenth Pouch – 4 zones • Zone 1. Falsifiers of Metals

  34. Canto XXX • Zone 2. Falsifiers of others’ Persons - Myhrra • Zone 3. Falsifiers of Coins (counterfeiters) • Zone 4. Falsifiers of Words (liars) - Potiphar

  35. Canto XXXI • Into the Ninth Circle • Chained giants

  36. Canto XXXII • Cocytus – Frozen Lake • 4 rings • Ring 1. – Caina – Traitors to kin • Ring 2. – Antenora – Traitors to homeland

  37. Canto XXXIII • Count Ugolino, Archbishop Ruggieri • Ring 3. – Ptolomea – Traitors to guests

  38. Canto XXXIV • Ring 4. – Judecca – Traitors to lords and benefactors • The Devil – Brutus, Cassius, Judas • Virgil leads Dante out the other end of Earth

  39. Qualities of an Epic • Begins in medias res - Canto 1 (l. 1-3) “Midway upon the journey of our life” • Vast setting – Canto 34 (l. 112-113) “And now beneath the hemisphere” • Begins with a statement of theme – Canto 1 (l. 112-117) “Therefore I think and judge it for thy best “ • Begins with an invocation to a muse – Canto 2 (l. 7-9) “O Muses, O high genius, now assist me!” • Includes the use of long lists – Canto 4 (l. 121-144) “Mongst who I knew” Ship references

  40. Qualities of an Epic: 2 • Features long and formal speeches – Canto 2 (l. 43-126)“Tell me, my master, tell me” • Shows divine intervention on human affairs - Canto 9 (l. 89-90) “He reached the gate” • Features heroes that embody the values of civilization – Canto 5 (l. 116-117) “The torment that you suffer” • Often features the epic hero’s descent into hell – Canto 3 (l. 9) “All hope abandon, ye who enter in!” • Epithets…

  41. Literary Elements • Alliteration- “So that the firm foot ever was the lower.” Canto I (l. 30) • Allusion- “He answered me: ‘Within there are tormented / Ulysses and Diomed, and thus together / They unto vengeance run as unto wrath. / And there within their flame do they lament / The ambush of the horse, which made the door / Whence issued forth the Romans’ gentle seed...’” Canto XXVI (l. 55-60) • Assonance- “Here the nobility shall be manifest / And I began...” Canto II (l. 9-10) • Consonance- “Justice incited my sublime Creator” Canto III (l. 4) • Deus ex Machina- “Well I perceived one sent from Heaven was he, / And to the Master turned; and he made a sign / That I should quiet stand, and bow before him.” Canto IX (l. 85-87) • Enjambment- “The many people and the diverse wounds / These eyes of mine had so inebriated” Canto XXIX (l. 1-2) • Imagery- “Speaking no word, we came to where there gushes / Forth from the wood a little rivulet, / Whose redness makes my hair still stand on end. / As from the Bulicame springs the brooklet, / The sinful women later share among them, / So downward through the sand it went its way. / The bottom of it, and both sloping banks, / Were made of stone, and the margins at the side; / Whence I perceived that there the passage was.” Canto XIV (l. 76-84) • In medias res- “Midway upon the journey of our life / I found myself within a forest dark, / For the straightforward pathway had been lost.” Canto I (l. 1-3) • Parallelism- “Through me the way is to the city dolent; / Through me the way is to eternal dole; / Through me the way among the people lost.” Canto III (1-3) • Simile- “In similar wise the evil seed of Adam / Throw themselves on that margin one by one, / at signals, as a bird unto its lure.” Canto III (l. 115-117) • Symbolism- “The infernal hurricane that never rests / Hurtles the spirits onward in its rapine; / Whirling them round, and smiting, it molests them.” Canto V (l. 31-33) • In life the sinners were blown around and controlled by lustful thoughts, now in hell they are eternally punished the same way. • “For the straightforward pathway had been lost.” Canto I (l. 3) • -Dante has lost his way on the true path of life; meaning sin has obstructed his path to God • Crumbling Statue